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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts

Departments of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Gyeongsang National University and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-751, Korea
Departments of Physiology, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751, Korea
Department of Research and Development, Namhae Garlic Research Institute, Namhae 668-812, Korea
Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-751, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 430;
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE2, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD4, and LTE4 production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory agents; antioxidants; garlic; NF-kappa B; sugar anti-inflammatory agents; antioxidants; garlic; NF-kappa B; sugar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, Y.Y.; Ryu, J.H.; Shin, J.-H.; Kang, M.J.; Kang, J.R.; Han, J.; Kang, D. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts. Molecules 2016, 21, 430.

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