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Molecules 2014, 19(4), 4200-4211;

Antiprotozoal Activities of Millettia richardiana (Fabaceae) from Madagascar

Centre National d'Application de la Recherche Pharmaceutique (CNARP), BP 702 Antananarivo 101, Madagascar, France
Centre d'Etude et de Recherche Médecins d'Afrique (CERMA), 43, rue des Glycines, 91600 Savigny sur Orge, France
Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique d'Antananarivo (ESPA), Université d'Antananarivo, BP 1500, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (ICSN-CNRS), Bâtiment 27, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
CNRS/LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination) UPR8241, 205, route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse, France
Université de Toulouse III, UPS, LCC; 118, route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse, France
Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rangueil, Université de Toulouse et Faculté de Médecine de Rangueil, Université de Toulouse III, UPS, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et de Chimiothérapie Antiparasitaire, CNRS UMR 8076 BioCIS, Faculté de Pharmacie, 5 rue J.-B. Clément, Université Paris-Sud 11, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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With at least 60% of the Millettia species (Fabaceae) being in medicinal use, we found it relevant to assess the potential antiprotozoal and antifungal activities of Millettia richardiana. Water and methanol crude extracts of the stem barks from M. richardiana and the six fractions resulting from the fractionation of the methanol extract were tested. The dichloromethane extracted fraction showed the best in vitro antiprotozoal activities (IC50 = 5.8 μg/mL against Plasmodium falciparum, 11.8 μg/mL against Leishmania donovani and 12.8 μg/mL against Trypanosoma brucei brucei) as well as low cytotoxicity on several cell lines. The phytochemical analysis showed this selected fraction to be rich in terpenoids and alkaloids, which could explain its antiparasitic activity. A phytochemical study revealed the presence of lonchocarpenin, betulinic acid, β-amyrin, lupeol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid, among which betulinic acid and lupeol could be the compounds responsible of these antiprotozoal activities. By contrast, neither the crude extracts nor the fractions showed antifungal activity against Candida. These results confirm the importance of the genus Millettia in Malagasy ethnomedicine, its potential use in antiparasitic therapy, and the interest of developing a sustainable exploitation of this plant. Moreover, both molecules betulinic acid and lupeol appeared as very relevant molecules for their antiprotozoal properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Millettia richardiana; traditional medicine; Madagascar; Plasmodium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; Candida Millettia richardiana; traditional medicine; Madagascar; Plasmodium; Trypanosoma; Leishmania; Candida
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Rajemiarimiraho, M.; Banzouzi, J.-T.; Nicolau-Travers, M.-L.; Ramos, S.; Cheikh-Ali, Z.; Bories, C.; Rakotonandrasana, O.L.; Rakotonandrasana, S.; Andrianary, P.A.; Benoit-Vical, F. Antiprotozoal Activities of Millettia richardiana (Fabaceae) from Madagascar. Molecules 2014, 19, 4200-4211.

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