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Review

Nonlinear Methods Most Applied to Heart-Rate Time Series: A Review

1
Centre for Health Technology and Services Research (CINTESIS), Faculty of Medicine University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2
Health Information and Decision Sciences Department-MEDCIDS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
3
Institute for Systems and Computer Engineering, Technology and Science (INESC-TEC), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
4
Computer Science Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Teresa Henriques and Maria Ribeiro are joint first authors.
Entropy 2020, 22(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22030309
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 9 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy, Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity)
The heart-rate dynamics are one of the most analyzed physiological interactions. Many mathematical methods were proposed to evaluate heart-rate variability. These methods have been successfully applied in research to expand knowledge concerning the cardiovascular dynamics in healthy as well as in pathological conditions. Notwithstanding, they are still far from clinical practice. In this paper, we aim to review the nonlinear methods most used to assess heart-rate dynamics. We focused on methods based on concepts of chaos, fractality, and complexity: Poincaré plot, recurrence plot analysis, fractal dimension (and the correlation dimension), detrended fluctuation analysis, Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent entropies (Shannon, conditional, approximate, sample entropy, and multiscale entropy), and symbolic dynamics. We present the description of the methods along with their most notable applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonlinear methods; heart-rate dynamics; time series nonlinear methods; heart-rate dynamics; time series
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MDPI and ACS Style

Henriques, T.; Ribeiro, M.; Teixeira, A.; Castro, L.; Antunes, L.; Costa-Santos, C. Nonlinear Methods Most Applied to Heart-Rate Time Series: A Review. Entropy 2020, 22, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22030309

AMA Style

Henriques T, Ribeiro M, Teixeira A, Castro L, Antunes L, Costa-Santos C. Nonlinear Methods Most Applied to Heart-Rate Time Series: A Review. Entropy. 2020; 22(3):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22030309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Henriques, Teresa, Maria Ribeiro, Andreia Teixeira, Luísa Castro, Luís Antunes, and Cristina Costa-Santos. 2020. "Nonlinear Methods Most Applied to Heart-Rate Time Series: A Review" Entropy 22, no. 3: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22030309

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