## 1. Introduction

## 2. Creativity

## 3. Lessons for Supercomputers?

## 4. Quantum Physics, Counterfactuality, Free Will

^{+}ions in voltage-gated ion channels in the neuronal membrane wall. They note that it is difficult to explain the high rates of ion flow using classical physics: the potential barriers are too high according to the classical Nernst–Planck equation. A key observation is that the de Broglie wavelengths of such ions at typical brain temperatures are comparable with the scale of the periodic structure of Coulomb potentials in the nano-pore structure of the ion-channel selectivity filter. Solving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Summhammer et al. show that the ionic wavefunction can be sufficiently spatially spread so that the front part of the wavefunction can effectively manipulate the confining potentials, in such a way as to allow the remaining part of the wavefunction to propagate through. In this way, a mechanism for ion conduction has been found that would be impossible to achieve classically unless the ions had much larger kinetic energy (which would be impossible given the energy available to power neuronal dynamics). The characteristic timescale for the operation of this process has to be short, around 1ps, to explain the fast and directed permeation of ions through the potential barriers of the filter. In this way, the Summhammer et al. mechanism not only builds on, but requires decoherence timescales of, around 1ps, entirely consistent with the range of decoherence timescales associated with biological systems (a problem with many other hypotheses involving quantum physics in consciousness).

## 5. Consciousness

## 6. Why is Quantum Physics so Unintuitive?

## 7. Conclusions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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