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Multi-Scale Heart Beat Entropy Measures for Mental Workload Assessment of Ambulant Users

Institut National de la Research Scientifique, Université du Québec, Montréal, QC H3A 0E7, Canada
Thales Research and Technology, Québec, QC G1P 4P5, Canada
School of Psychology, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(8), 783;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Entropy Approaches and Their Applications)
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Mental workload assessment is crucial in many real life applications which require constant attention and where imbalance of mental workload resources may cause safety hazards. As such, mental workload and its relationship with heart rate variability (HRV) have been well studied in the literature. However, the majority of the developed models have assumed individuals are not ambulant, thus bypassing the issue of movement-related electrocardiography (ECG) artifacts and changing heart beat dynamics due to physical activity. In this work, multi-scale features for mental workload assessment of ambulatory users is explored. ECG data was sampled from users while they performed different types and levels of physical activity while performing the multi-attribute test battery (MATB-II) task at varying difficulty levels. Proposed features are shown to outperform benchmark ones and further exhibit complementarity when used in combination. Indeed, results show gains over the benchmark HRV measures of 24.41 % in accuracy and of 27.97 % in F1 score can be achieved even at high activity levels.
Keywords: mental workload; motif; multi-scale entropy; permutation entropy; HRV; SVM mental workload; motif; multi-scale entropy; permutation entropy; HRV; SVM
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tiwari, A.; Albuquerque, I.; Parent, M.; Gagnon, J.-F.; Lafond, D.; Tremblay, S.; H. Falk, T. Multi-Scale Heart Beat Entropy Measures for Mental Workload Assessment of Ambulant Users. Entropy 2019, 21, 783.

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