# Are Virtual Particles Less Real?

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. The Real/Virtual Distinction and its Limits

## 3. QFT, Particle Physics, and Feynman Diagrams

- (1)
- Each internal line symbolizes a propagator of the form$${({p}^{2}-{m}^{2}+i\u03f5)}^{-1},$$
- (2)
- Each vertex symbolizes an imaginary factor with the magnitude of the appropriate coupling constant;
- (3)
- Lines connected to external points require no propagator (as they are cancelled out, as discussed further above);
- (4)
- Momentum conservation is imposed at each vertex;
- (5)
- Undetermined four-momenta are integrated over;
- (6)
- All possible diagrams (each an integral) are summed.

## 4. The Positions

## 5. The Arguments Against Virtual Particles

## 6. Virtual Particles are as Real as Others

## 7. Conclusions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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Jaeger, G.
Are Virtual Particles Less Real? *Entropy* **2019**, *21*, 141.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020141

**AMA Style**

Jaeger G.
Are Virtual Particles Less Real? *Entropy*. 2019; 21(2):141.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020141

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jaeger, Gregg.
2019. "Are Virtual Particles Less Real?" *Entropy* 21, no. 2: 141.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020141