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Open AccessArticle

Paced Breathing Increases the Redundancy of Cardiorespiratory Control in Healthy Individuals and Chronic Heart Failure Patients

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, 20097 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Cardiothoracic, Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, IRCCS Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, 27040 Montescano, Italy
4
IRCCS Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, 20097 Milan, Italy
5
Department of Cardiological Rehabilitation, IRCCS Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, 27040 Montescano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2018, 20(12), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20120949
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Dynamics in Brain and Physiological Networks)
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Abstract

Synergy and redundancy are concepts that suggest, respectively, adaptability and fault tolerance of systems with complex behavior. This study computes redundancy/synergy in bivariate systems formed by a target X and a driver Y according to the predictive information decomposition approach and partial information decomposition framework based on the minimal mutual information principle. The two approaches assess the redundancy/synergy of past of X and Y in reducing the uncertainty of the current state of X. The methods were applied to evaluate the interactions between heart and respiration in healthy young subjects (n = 19) during controlled breathing at 10, 15 and 20 breaths/minute and in two groups of chronic heart failure patients during paced respiration at 6 (n = 9) and 15 (n = 20) breaths/minutes from spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of heart period and respiratory signal. Both methods suggested that slowing respiratory rate below the spontaneous frequency increases redundancy of cardiorespiratory control in both healthy and pathological groups, thus possibly improving fault tolerance of the cardiorespiratory control. The two methods provide markers complementary to respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the strength of the linear coupling between heart period variability and respiration in describing the physiology of the cardiorespiratory reflex suitable to be exploited in various pathophysiological settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: generalized mutual information; interaction self-information; bivariate dynamical stochastic system; linear regression model; partial information decomposition; synergy; cardiorespiratory coupling; heart rate variability; autonomic nervous system generalized mutual information; interaction self-information; bivariate dynamical stochastic system; linear regression model; partial information decomposition; synergy; cardiorespiratory coupling; heart rate variability; autonomic nervous system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Porta, A.; Maestri, R.; Bari, V.; De Maria, B.; Cairo, B.; Vaini, E.; La Rovere, M.T.; Pinna, G.D. Paced Breathing Increases the Redundancy of Cardiorespiratory Control in Healthy Individuals and Chronic Heart Failure Patients. Entropy 2018, 20, 949.

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