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Entropy 2017, 19(9), 492;

Eigentimes and Very Slow Processes

Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen ∅, Denmark
Department of Applied Mathematics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy, Time and Evolution)
PDF [1712 KB, uploaded 14 September 2017]


We investigate the importance of the time and length scales at play in our descriptions of Nature. What can we observe at the atomic scale, at the laboratory (human) scale, and at the galactic scale? Which variables make sense? For every scale we wish to understand we need a set of variables which are linked through closed equations, i.e., everything can meaningfully be described in terms of those variables without the need to investigate other scales. Examples from physics, chemistry, and evolution are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: very slow processes; eigentimes; evolution; closure; observation time very slow processes; eigentimes; evolution; closure; observation time

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Andresen, B.; Essex, C. Eigentimes and Very Slow Processes. Entropy 2017, 19, 492.

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