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Materials, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2016)

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Cover Story Multi-scale analysis of concrete requires validation and determination of input parameters at all [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Coupled Thermal–Hydrological–Mechanical Damage Model and Its Numerical Simulations of Damage Evolution in APSE
Materials 2016, 9(11), 841; doi:10.3390/ma9110841
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
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Abstract
This paper proposes a coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical damage (THMD) model for the failure process of rock, in which coupling effects such as thermally induced rock deformation, water flow-induced thermal convection, and rock deformation-induced water flow are considered. The damage is considered to be the
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This paper proposes a coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical damage (THMD) model for the failure process of rock, in which coupling effects such as thermally induced rock deformation, water flow-induced thermal convection, and rock deformation-induced water flow are considered. The damage is considered to be the key factor that controls the THM coupling process and the heterogeneity of rock is characterized by the Weibull distribution. Next, numerical simulations on excavation-induced damage zones in Äspö pillar stability experiments (APSE) are carried out and the impact of in situ stress conditions on damage zone distribution is analysed. Then, further numerical simulations of damage evolution at the heating stage in APSE are carried out. The impacts of in situ stress state, swelling pressure and water pressure on damage evolution at the heating stage are simulated and analysed, respectively. The simulation results indicate that (1) the v-shaped notch at the sidewall of the pillar is predominantly controlled by the in situ stress trends and magnitude; (2) at the heating stage, the existence of confining pressure can suppress the occurrence of damage, including shear damage and tensile damage; and (3) the presence of water flow and water pressure can promote the occurrence of damage, especially shear damage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Subthreshold Characteristics and Flicker Noise of an AlGaAs/InGaAs PHEMT Using Liquid Phase Deposited TiO2 as a Gate Dielectric
Materials 2016, 9(11), 861; doi:10.3390/ma9110861
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
This study presents the fabrication and improved properties of an AlGaAs/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-PHEMT) using liquid phase deposited titanium dioxide (LPD-TiO2) as a gate dielectric. Sulfur pretreatment and postoxidation rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were consecutively employed before and after
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This study presents the fabrication and improved properties of an AlGaAs/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-PHEMT) using liquid phase deposited titanium dioxide (LPD-TiO2) as a gate dielectric. Sulfur pretreatment and postoxidation rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were consecutively employed before and after the gate dielectric was deposited to fill dangling bonds and therefore release interface trapped charges. Compared with a benchmark PHEMT, the AlGaAs/InGaAs MOS-PHEMT using LPD-TiO2 exhibited larger gate bias operation, higher breakdown voltage, suppressed subthreshold characteristics, and reduced flicker noise. As a result, the device with proposed process and using LPD-TiO2 as a gate dielectric is promising for high-speed applications that demand little noise at low frequencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deposition of Ultrathin Nano-Hydroxyapatite Films on Laser Micro-Textured Titanium Surfaces to Prepare a Multiscale Surface Topography for Improved Surface Wettability/Energy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 862; doi:10.3390/ma9110862
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between topographical features and chemical composition with the changes in wettability and the surface free energy of microstructured titanium (Ti) surfaces. Periodic microscale structures on the surface of Ti substrates were fabricated
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The primary aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between topographical features and chemical composition with the changes in wettability and the surface free energy of microstructured titanium (Ti) surfaces. Periodic microscale structures on the surface of Ti substrates were fabricated via direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). Radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition of ultrathin nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) films was used to form an additional nanoscale grain morphology on the microscale-structured Ti surfaces to generate multiscale surface structures. The surface characteristics were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and contact angle and surface free energy measurements. The structure and phase composition of the HA films were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The HA-coated periodic microscale structured Ti substrates exhibited a significantly lower water contact angle and a larger surface free energy compared with the uncoated Ti substrates. Control over the wettability and surface free energy was achieved using Ti substrates structured via the DLIP technique followed by the deposition of a nanostructured HA coating, which resulted in the changes in surface chemistry and the formation of multiscale surface topography on the nano- and microscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Study on Ionic Conductive (Bi1−x,Vx)O1.5−δ Materials with a Dual-Phase Microstructure
Materials 2016, 9(11), 863; doi:10.3390/ma9110863
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Homogeneous Bi2O3-V2O5 powder mixtures with different amounts of V2O5 content (≤15 mol%) were prepared by colloidal dispersion and sintering to high density. The sintered and annealed samples were studied by thermal analysis, quantitative
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Homogeneous Bi2O3-V2O5 powder mixtures with different amounts of V2O5 content (≤15 mol%) were prepared by colloidal dispersion and sintering to high density. The sintered and annealed samples were studied by thermal analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical and ionic conductivities of the conductors were also measured by a four-probe direct current (DC) method. The results of the samples prepared at 600–800 °C and annealed for as long as 100 h show that the sintered samples consisting of a pure γ phase or δ + γ binary phase perform differently in conductivity. The highly conductive δ phase in the composition of Bi0.92V0.08O1.5−δ enhances the electric conductivity 10-times better than that of the pure γ-sample (Bi0.94V0.06O1.5−δ) between 400 and 600 °C. The compatible regions of the γ phase with the α- or δ phase are also reported and discussed, so a part of the previously published Bi2O3-V2O5 phase diagram below 800 °C is revised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication An Intriguing Method for Fabricating Arbitrarily Shaped “Matreshka” Hydrogels Using a Self-Healing Template
Materials 2016, 9(11), 864; doi:10.3390/ma9110864
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
This work describes an intriguing strategy for the creation of arbitrarily shaped hydrogels utilizing a self-healing template (SHT). A SHT was loaded with a photo-crosslinkable monomer, PEG diacrylate (PEGDA), and then ultraviolet light (UV) crosslinked after first shaping. The SHT template was removed
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This work describes an intriguing strategy for the creation of arbitrarily shaped hydrogels utilizing a self-healing template (SHT). A SHT was loaded with a photo-crosslinkable monomer, PEG diacrylate (PEGDA), and then ultraviolet light (UV) crosslinked after first shaping. The SHT template was removed by simple washing with water, leaving behind the hydrogel in the desired physical shape. A hierarchical 3D structure such as “Matreshka” boxes were successfully prepared by simply repeating the “self-healing” and “photo-irradiation” processes. We have also explored the potential of the SHT system for the manipulation of cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Hydrogels for (Bio)printing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of WC-17Co Coating Combined with Shot Peening Treatment on Fatigue Behaviors of TC21 Titanium Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 865; doi:10.3390/ma9110865
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a
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The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to determine the properties of the HVOF WC-17Co coating with or without shot peening. The fatigue behavior of the TC21 titanium alloy with or without the WC-17Co coating was determined by using a rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The results revealed that the polished HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating had almost the same fatigue resistance as the TC21 titanium alloy substrate. This resulted from the polishing-induced residual surface compressive stress and a decrease in the stress concentration on the surface of the coating. Moderate-intensity shot peening of the polished WC-17Co coatings resulted in significant improvement of the fatigue resistance of the alloy. Furthermore, the fatigue life was substantially higher than that of the substrate, owing to the deep distribution of residual stress and high compressive stress induced by shot peening. The improved surface toughness of the coating can effectively delay the initiation of fatigue crack propagation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nanoindentation Characterization of a Ternary Clay-Based Composite Used in Ancient Chinese Construction
Materials 2016, 9(11), 866; doi:10.3390/ma9110866
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC), composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain
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Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC), composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests. Results show that there are five distinct mechanical phases, where the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and geopolymer present in the binder matrix are almost identical to those produced in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and alkali-activated fly-ash geopolymer materials in nano-mechanical performance. The nano-mechanical behavior of calcite produced by the carbonation of lime in this binder is close to the calcite porous outer part of some sea urchin shells. Compared to OPC, the C-S-H contained in the TCC has a relatively lower ratio of indentation modulus to indentation hardness, implying a relatively lower resistance to material fracture. However, the geopolymer and calcite, at nearly the same volume content as the C-S-H, help to enhance the strength and durability of the TCC by their higher energy resistance capacity or higher strength compared to the C-S-H. Rediscovering of TCC offers a potential way to improve modern concrete’s strength and durability through synergy of multi-binders and the addition of organic materials if TCC can be advanced in terms of its workability and hardening rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Regional Loss Factor and Its Anisotropy for Aortic Aneurysms
Materials 2016, 9(11), 867; doi:10.3390/ma9110867
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract
An aortic aneurysm is a lethal arterial disease that mainly occurs in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are prevalent in the root/ascending parts of the aorta and can lead to aortic rupture resulting in the sudden death
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An aortic aneurysm is a lethal arterial disease that mainly occurs in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are prevalent in the root/ascending parts of the aorta and can lead to aortic rupture resulting in the sudden death of patients. Understanding the biomechanical and histopathological changes associated with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs), this study investigates the mechanical properties of the aorta during strip-biaxial tensile cycles. The loss factor—defined as the ratio of dissipated energy to the energy absorbed during a tensile cycle—the incremental modulus, and their anisotropy indexes were compared with the media fiber compositions for aneurysmal (n = 26) and control (n = 4) human ascending aortas. The aneurysmal aortas were categorized into the aortas with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). The strip-biaxial loss factor correlates well with the diameter of the aortas with BAV and TAV (for the axial direction, respectively, R2 = 0.71, p = 0.0022 and R2 = 0.54, p = 0.0096). The loss factor increases significantly with patients’ age in the BAV group (for the axial direction: R2 = 0.45, p = 0.0164). The loss factor is isotropic for all TAV quadrants, whereas it is on average only isotropic in the anterior and outer curvature regions of the BAV group. The results suggest that loss factor may be a useful surrogate measure to describe the histopathology of aneurysmal tissue and to demonstrate the differences between ATAAs with the BAV and TAV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle The Synergistic Effect of Iodide and Sodium Nitrite on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Bicarbonate–Chloride Solution
Materials 2016, 9(11), 868; doi:10.3390/ma9110868
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of potassium iodide (KI) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function
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The effect of potassium iodide (KI) and sodium nitrite (NaNO2 inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO2 function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO2 concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The latter shows that the addition of I to NO2 facilitates the formation of a passivating oxide (γ-Fe2O3) as compared to NO2 alone, decreasing the rate of metal dissolution observed in electrochemical testing. The synergistic effect of KI/NO2 inhibition was enhanced under the dynamic conditions associated with testing in a rotating disc electrode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl3 Particles
Materials 2016, 9(11), 869; doi:10.3390/ma9110869
Received: 7 August 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl
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A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl3 particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl3 particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl3 particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl3 particles prepared through different processes was almost identical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Performance Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Highly and Stably Water Permeable Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes Doped with MIL-101 (Cr) Nanoparticles for Reverse Osmosis Application
Materials 2016, 9(11), 870; doi:10.3390/ma9110870
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF) material-MIL-101 (Cr) was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA) layer on the polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration (UF) support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr) membranes
[...] Read more.
A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF) material-MIL-101 (Cr) was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA) layer on the polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration (UF) support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr) membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability measurement and reverse osmosis (RO) test. The porous structures of MIL-101 (Cr) can establish direct water channels in the dense selective PA layer for water molecules to transport through quickly, leading to the increasing water permeance of membranes. With good compatibility between MIL-101 (Cr) nanoparticles and the PA layer, the lab made TFN-MIL-101 (Cr) membranes integrated tightly and showed a high NaCl salt rejection. MIL-101 (Cr) nanoparticles increased water permeance to 2.2 L/m2·h·bar at 0.05 w/v % concentration, 44% higher than the undoped PA membranes; meanwhile, the NaCl rejection remained higher than 99%. This study experimentally verified the potential use of MIL-101 (Cr) in advanced TFN RO membranes, which can be used in the diversified water purification field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Water Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Infection and Implant Loosening in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Evaluation of 209 Cases
Materials 2016, 9(11), 871; doi:10.3390/ma9110871
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteria species detected in a large number of patients treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee at a single specialized center. Furthermore, the rate of implant loosening was investigated in a time-dependent
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The aim of this study was to evaluate bacteria species detected in a large number of patients treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee at a single specialized center. Furthermore, the rate of implant loosening was investigated in a time-dependent manner for the most frequently detected bacteria species. A retrospective analysis of patients (n = 209) treated for prosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee was performed. The following parameters were evaluated: C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration, microbiological evaluation of tissue samples, loosening of the implant, the time that had elapsed since the primary prosthetic joint replacement, and the duration since the last surgical intervention. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. were most frequently detected, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Differences in CRP concentration were detected among various bacteria species. Osteolysis was not associated with one causative agent in particular. Patients who had undergone previous revision surgery had a higher probability of implant loosening. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. are the most common causative agents of prosthetic joint infection and show no significant differences with regard to implant loosening or the time-course when compared to S. aureus. Infections with Enterococcus spp. seem to develop faster than with other bacteria species. The risk of implant loosening increases with revision surgery, in particular in the hip joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Infective Materials in Medicine and Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Subsequent Heat Treatment Routes for Near-β Forged TA15 Ti-Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 872; doi:10.3390/ma9110872
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract
TA15 Ti-alloy is widely used to form key load-bearing components in the aerospace field, where excellent service performance is needed. Near-β forging technology provides an attractive way to form these complicated Ti-alloy components but subsequent heat treatment has a great impact on the
[...] Read more.
TA15 Ti-alloy is widely used to form key load-bearing components in the aerospace field, where excellent service performance is needed. Near-β forging technology provides an attractive way to form these complicated Ti-alloy components but subsequent heat treatment has a great impact on the final microstructure and mechanical properties. Therefore evaluation and determination of the heat treatment route is of particular significance. In this paper, for the near-β forged TA15 alloy, the formation and evolution of microstructures under different subsequent heat treatment routes (annealing, solution and aging, toughening and strengthening) were studied and the cooling mode after forging was also considered. Then, the type and characteristics of the obtained microstructures were discussed through quantitative metallographic analysis. The corresponding mechanical properties (tensile, impact toughness, and fracture toughness) and effects of microstructural characteristics were investigated. Finally, for a required microstructure and performance a reasonable heat treatment route was recommended. The work is of importance for the application and development of near-β forging technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Metallurgy of High Performance Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides and Short Lipopeptides on Bacterial Biofilms Formed on Contact Lenses
Materials 2016, 9(11), 873; doi:10.3390/ma9110873
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The widespread use of contact lenses is associated with several complications, including ocular biofilm-related infections. They are very difficult to manage with standard antimicrobial therapies, because bacterial growth in a biofilm is associated with an increased antibiotic resistance. The principal aim of this
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The widespread use of contact lenses is associated with several complications, including ocular biofilm-related infections. They are very difficult to manage with standard antimicrobial therapies, because bacterial growth in a biofilm is associated with an increased antibiotic resistance. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in eradication of bacterial biofilms formed on commercially available contact lenses. AMPs were synthesized according to Fmoc/tBu chemistry using the solid-phase method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of the compounds were determined. Anti-biofilm activity of the antimicrobial peptides determined at different temperatures (25 °C and 37 °C) were compared with the effectiveness of commercially available contact lens solutions. All of the tested compounds exhibited stronger anti-biofilm properties as compared to those of the tested lens solutions. The strongest activity of AMPs was noticed against Gram-positive strains at a temperature of 25 °C. Conclusions: The results of our experiments encourage us toward further studies on AMPs and their potential application in the prophylaxis of contact lens-related eye infections. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Glucose Concentration on Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Pure Titanium TA2 in Hanks’ Simulated Body Fluid
Materials 2016, 9(11), 874; doi:10.3390/ma9110874
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium and its alloys have been widely used as implant materials due to their excellent mechanical property and biocompatibility. In the present study, the effect of glucose concentration on corrosion behavior of pure titanium TA2 in Hanks’ simulated body fluid is investigated by
[...] Read more.
Titanium and its alloys have been widely used as implant materials due to their excellent mechanical property and biocompatibility. In the present study, the effect of glucose concentration on corrosion behavior of pure titanium TA2 in Hanks’ simulated body fluid is investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The range of glucose concentrations investigated in this research includes 5 mmol/L (limosis for healthy people), 7 mmol/L (after diet for healthy people), 10 mmol/L (limosis for hyperglycemia patient), and 12 mmol/L (after diet for hyperglycemia patient), as well as, 15 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L, which represent different body fluid environments. The results indicate that the pure titanium TA2 demonstrates the best corrosion resistance when the glucose concentration is less than 10 mmol/L, which shows that the pure titanium TA2 as implant material can play an effective role in the body fluids with normal and slight high glucose concentrations. Comparatively, the corrosion for the pure titanium implant is more probable when the glucose concentration is over 10 mmol/L due to the premature penetration through passive film on the material surface. Corrosion defects of pitting and crevice exist on the corroded surface, and the depth of corrosion is limited to three microns with a low corrosion rate. The oxidation film on the surface of pure titanium TA2 has a protective effect on the corrosion behavior of the implant inner material. The corrosion behavior of pure titanium TA2 will happen easily once the passive film has been penetrated through. The corrosion rate for TA2 implant will accelerate quickly and a pure titanium implant cannot be used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel
Materials 2016, 9(11), 875; doi:10.3390/ma9110875
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (23301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a
[...] Read more.
Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Paper Sludge Reuse in Lightweight Aggregates Manufacturing
Materials 2016, 9(11), 876; doi:10.3390/ma9110876
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lightweight aggregates used by the civil engineering market are sintered at a high temperature, about 1200 °C. In times of high energy prices and regulation of carbon dioxide emissions, lightweight aggregate products of the high-temperature process in sales marketing are not readily
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The lightweight aggregates used by the civil engineering market are sintered at a high temperature, about 1200 °C. In times of high energy prices and regulation of carbon dioxide emissions, lightweight aggregate products of the high-temperature process in sales marketing are not readily accepted. This study developed a sintered-type paper sludge lightweight aggregate. In order to reduce energy consumption, substitution of some reservoir sediment clay in paper sludge substitutes is to be expected. The study used two types of paper sludge (green clay paper sludge and paper pulp sludge). The sintering temperature was reduced effectively as the green clay paper sludge was substituted for some of the reservoir sediment clay, and the optimum substitute ranges of green clay paper sludge were 10%–50%. The optimum substitute ranges of the paper pulp sludge were 10%–40%. Test results show that the properties of aggregates have a particle density of 0.66–1.69 g/cm3, a water absorption of 5%–30%, and a loss on ignition of 10%–43%. The loss on ignition of aggregate became greater with the increase in paper sludge content. This means that the calorific value provided by the paper sludge will increase as paper sludge content increases. Paper sludge can therefore be considered a good material to provide heat energy for sintering lightweight aggregate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle First-Principles Investigation of Phase Stability, Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of MgZnO Monolayer
Materials 2016, 9(11), 877; doi:10.3390/ma9110877
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MgZnO bulk has attracted much attention as candidates for application in optoelectronic devices in the blue and ultraviolet region. However, there has been no reported study regarding two-dimensional MgZnO monolayer in spite of its unique properties due to quantum confinement effect. Here, using
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MgZnO bulk has attracted much attention as candidates for application in optoelectronic devices in the blue and ultraviolet region. However, there has been no reported study regarding two-dimensional MgZnO monolayer in spite of its unique properties due to quantum confinement effect. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we investigated the phase stability, electronic structure and optical properties of MgxZn1−xO monolayer with Mg concentration x range from 0 to 1. Our calculations show that MgZnO monolayer remains the graphene-like structure with various Mg concentrations. The phase segregation occurring in bulk systems has not been observed in the monolayer due to size effect, which is advantageous for application. Moreover, MgZnO monolayer exhibits interesting tuning of electronic structure and optical properties with Mg concentration. The band gap increases with increasing Mg concentration. More interestingly, a direct to indirect band gap transition is observed for MgZnO monolayer when Mg concentration is higher than 75 at %. We also predict that Mg doping leads to a blue shift of the optical absorption peaks. Our results may provide guidance for designing the growth process and potential application of MgZnO monolayer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Multiscale Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing a Test Method to Evaluate Resistance of Pervious Concrete to Cycles of Freezing and Thawing in the Presence of Different Deicing Salts
Materials 2016, 9(11), 878; doi:10.3390/ma9110878
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion
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The lack of a standard test method for evaluating the resistance of pervious concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing in the presence of deicing salts is the motive behind this study. Different sample size and geometry, cycle duration, and level of submersion in brine solutions were investigated to achieve an optimized test method. The optimized test method was able to produce different levels of damage when different types of deicing salts were used. The optimized duration of one cycle was found to be 24 h with twelve hours of freezing at −18 °C and twelve hours of thawing at +21 °C, with the bottom 10 mm of the sample submerged in the brine solution. Cylinder samples with a diameter of 100 mm and height of 150 mm were used and found to produce similar results to 150 mm-cubes. Based on the obtained results a mass loss of 3%–5% is proposed as a failure criterion of cylindrical samples. For the materials and within the cycles of freezing/thawing investigated here, the deicers that caused the most damage were NaCl, CaCl 2 and urea, followed by MgCl 2 , potassium acetate, sodium acetate and calcium-magnesium acetate. More testing is needed to validate the effects of different deicers under long term exposures and different temperature ranges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Synthesis and Oxide Dispersion Properties of Strengthened Tungsten via Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2016, 9(11), 879; doi:10.3390/ma9110879
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
Highly uniform oxide dispersion-strengthened materials W–1 wt % Nd2O3 and W–1 wt % CeO2 were successfully fabricated via a novel wet chemical method followed by hydrogen reduction. The powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 1700 °C to
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Highly uniform oxide dispersion-strengthened materials W–1 wt % Nd2O3 and W–1 wt % CeO2 were successfully fabricated via a novel wet chemical method followed by hydrogen reduction. The powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering at 1700 °C to suppress grain growth. The samples were characterized by performing field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses, Vickers microhardness measurements, thermal conductivity, and tensile testing. The oxide particles were dispersed at the tungsten grain boundaries and within the grains. The thermal conductivity of the samples at room temperature exceeded 140 W/m·K. The tensile tests indicated that W–1 wt % CeO2 exhibited a ductile–brittle transition temperature between 500 °C and 550 °C, which was a lower range than that for W–1 wt % Nd2O3. Surface topography and Vickers microhardness analyses were conducted before and after irradiations with 50 eV He ions at a fluence of 1 × 1022 m−2 for 1 h in the large-powder material irradiation experiment system. The grain boundaries of the irradiated area became more evident than that of the unirradiated area for both samples. Irradiation hardening was recognized for the W–1 wt % Nd2O3 and W–1 wt % CeO2 samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 880; doi:10.3390/ma9110880
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing
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New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle An 8-Channel Wavelength MMI Demultiplexer in Slot Waveguide Structures
Materials 2016, 9(11), 881; doi:10.3390/ma9110881
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a novel 8-channel wavelength multimode interference (MMI) demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures that operate at 1530 nm, 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, 1555 nm, 1560 nm, and 1565 nm. Gallium nitride (GaN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was found
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We propose a novel 8-channel wavelength multimode interference (MMI) demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures that operate at 1530 nm, 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, 1555 nm, 1560 nm, and 1565 nm. Gallium nitride (GaN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was found to be a suitable material for the slot-waveguide structures. The proposed device was designed by seven 1 × 2 MMI couplers, fourteen S-bands, and one input taper. Numerical investigations were carried out on the geometrical parameters using a full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can transmit 8-channel that works in the whole C-band (1530–1565 nm) with low crosstalk (−19.97–−13.77 dB) and bandwidth (1.8–3.6 nm). Thus, the device can be very useful in optical networking systems that work on dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silicon Nanophotonics)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants over Flower-Like Bi2O2CO3 Dotted with Ag@AgBr
Materials 2016, 9(11), 882; doi:10.3390/ma9110882
Received: 21 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
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Abstract
A facile and feasible oil-in-water self-assembly approach was developed to synthesize flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. Compared to Bi2O2CO3
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A facile and feasible oil-in-water self-assembly approach was developed to synthesize flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated through methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. Compared to Bi2O2CO3, flower-like Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 micro-composites show enhanced photocatalytic activities. In addition, results indicate that both the physicochemical properties and associated photocatalytic activities of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 composites are shown to be dependent on the loading quantity of Ag@AgBr. The highest photocatalytic performance was achieved at 7 wt % Ag@AgBr, degrading 95.18% methylene blue (MB) after 20 min of irradiation, which is over 1.52 and 3.56 times more efficient than that of pure Ag@AgBr and pure Bi2O2CO3, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA) was also degraded to further demonstrate the degradation ability of Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3. A photocatalytic mechanism for the degradation of organic compounds over Ag@AgBr/Bi2O2CO3 was proposed. Results from this study illustrate an entirely new approach to fabricate semiconductor composites containing Ag@AgX/bismuth (X = a halogen). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Electric Field–Induced Structural Changes at Fe-Doped SrTiO3 Anode Interfaces by Second Harmonic Generation
Materials 2016, 9(11), 883; doi:10.3390/ma9110883
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 31 October 2016
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Abstract
We report on the detection of electric field–induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) from the anode interfaces of reduced and oxidized Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO) single crystals. For the reduced crystal, we observe steady enhancements of the susceptibility components as the imposed dc-voltage
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We report on the detection of electric field–induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) from the anode interfaces of reduced and oxidized Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO) single crystals. For the reduced crystal, we observe steady enhancements of the susceptibility components as the imposed dc-voltage increases. The enhancements are attributed to a field-stabilized electrostriction, leading to Fe:Ti-O bond stretching and bending in Fe:Ti-O6 octahedra. For the oxidized crystal, no obvious structural changes are observed below 16 kV/cm. Above 16 kV/cm, a sharp enhancement of the susceptibilities occurs due to local electrostrictive deformations in response to oxygen vacancy migrations away from the anode. Differences between the reduced and oxidized crystals are explained by their relative oxygen vacancy and free carrier concentrations which alter internal electric fields present at the Pt/Fe:STO interfaces. Our results show that the optical SHG technique is a powerful tool for detecting structural changes near perovskite-based oxide interfaces due to field-driven oxygen vacancy migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Absorbing and Energy Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Susceptibility to SCC of 7050 Aluminum Alloy by DCB Specimens
Materials 2016, 9(11), 884; doi:10.3390/ma9110884
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
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Abstract
The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of different aging states for 7050 aluminum alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride aqueous solution has been studied by means of double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens, cathodic polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and time-of-flying second
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The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of different aging states for 7050 aluminum alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride aqueous solution has been studied by means of double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens, cathodic polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and time-of-flying second ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS). The results showed that the susceptibility to SCC (Iscc) of 7050 aluminum alloy decreases with increasing the aging time. When a cathodic polarization potential of −1100 mV was applied to DCB specimens, the ion current intensity of hydrogen (IH+) near the crack tip and Iscc increased obviously, thus the degree of the diffusion of hydrogen into the grain boundary become more serious. The observation of microstructure indicated that the precipitates on the grain boundary become coarse and are sparsely distributed with increasing the aging time of 7050 aluminum alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell
Materials 2016, 9(11), 885; doi:10.3390/ma9110885
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared
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Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC) alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW) alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO2 modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m3 (102 mW/m2) and 3044 mW/m3 (80 mW/m2), respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites Based on Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin
Materials 2016, 9(11), 886; doi:10.3390/ma9110886
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was added by the mass of phenol to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resins, which were used to fabricate glass fiber (GF) reinforced BPF resin (GF/BPF) composites. The properties of the BPF resin
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In this study, bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was added by the mass of phenol to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resins, which were used to fabricate glass fiber (GF) reinforced BPF resin (GF/BPF) composites. The properties of the BPF resin and the GF/BPF composites prepared were tested. The functional groups and thermal property of BPF resin were thoroughly investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA). Results indicated that the addition of 20% bio-oil exhibited favorable adaptability for enhancing the stiffness and heat resistance of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. Besides, high-performance GF/BPF composites could be successfully prepared with the BPF resin based on hand lay-up process. The interface characteristics of GF/BPF composites were determined by the analysis of dynamic wettability (DW) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It exhibited that GF could be well wetted and embedded in the BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Cell-Loaded Two-Phase 3D Constructs for Tissue Engineering
Materials 2016, 9(11), 887; doi:10.3390/ma9110887
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hydrogel optimisation for biofabrication considering shape stability/mechanical properties and cell response is challenging. One approach to tackle this issue is to combine different additive manufacturing techniques, e.g., hot-melt extruded thermoplastics together with bioplotted cell loaded hydrogels in a sequential plotting process. This method
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Hydrogel optimisation for biofabrication considering shape stability/mechanical properties and cell response is challenging. One approach to tackle this issue is to combine different additive manufacturing techniques, e.g., hot-melt extruded thermoplastics together with bioplotted cell loaded hydrogels in a sequential plotting process. This method enables the fabrication of 3D constructs mechanically supported by the thermoplastic structure and biologically functionalised by the hydrogel phase. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) blend (PCL-PEG) together with alginate dialdehyde gelatine hydrogel (ADA-GEL) loaded with stromal cell line (ST2) were investigated. PCL-PEG blends were evaluated concerning plotting properties to fabricate 3D scaffolds, namely miscibility, wetting behaviour and in terms of cell response. Scaffolds were characterised considering pore size, porosity, strut width, degradation behaviour and mechanical stability. Blends showed improved hydrophilicity and cell response with PEG blending increasing the degradation and decreasing the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Hybrid constructs with PCL-PEG blend and ADA-GEL were fabricated. Cell viability, distribution, morphology and interaction of cells with the support structure were analysed. Increased degradation of the thermoplastic support structure and proliferation of the cells not only in the hydrogel, but also on the thermoplastic phase, indicates the potential of this novel material combination for biofabricating 3D tissue engineering scaffolds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Hydrogels for (Bio)printing Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Do Dental Resin Composites Accumulate More Oral Biofilms and Plaque than Amalgam and Glass Ionomer Materials?
Materials 2016, 9(11), 888; doi:10.3390/ma9110888
Received: 1 October 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A long-time drawback of dental composites is that they accumulate more biofilms and plaques than amalgam and glass ionomer restorative materials. It would be highly desirable to develop a new composite with reduced biofilm growth, while avoiding the non-esthetics of amalgam and low
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A long-time drawback of dental composites is that they accumulate more biofilms and plaques than amalgam and glass ionomer restorative materials. It would be highly desirable to develop a new composite with reduced biofilm growth, while avoiding the non-esthetics of amalgam and low strength of glass ionomer. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a protein-repellent composite with reduced biofilms matching amalgam and glass ionomer for the first time; and (2) investigate their protein adsorption, biofilms, and mechanical properties. Five materials were tested: A new composite containing 3% of protein-repellent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC); the composite with 0% MPC as control; commercial composite control; dental amalgam; resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU), and lactic acid production. Composite with 3% MPC had flexural strength similar to those with 0% MPC and commercial composite control (p > 0.1), and much greater than RMGI (p < 0.05). Composite with 3% MPC had protein adsorption that was only 1/10 that of control composites (p < 0.05). Composite with 3% MPC had biofilm CFU and lactic acid much lower than control composites (p < 0.05). Biofilm growth, metabolic activity and lactic acid on the new composite with 3% MPC were reduced to the low level of amalgam and RMGI (p > 0.1). In conclusion, a new protein-repellent dental resin composite reduced oral biofilm growth and acid production to the low levels of non-esthetic amalgam and RMGI for the first time. The long-held conclusion that dental composites accumulate more biofilms than amalgam and glass ionomer is no longer true. The novel composite is promising to finally overcome the major biofilm-accumulation drawback of dental composites in order to reduce biofilm acids and secondary caries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle A Natural Bacterium-Produced Membrane-Bound Nanocarrier for Drug Combination Therapy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 889; doi:10.3390/ma9110889
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To minimize the non-specific toxicity of drug combination during cancer therapy, we prepared a new system synthesized from bacteria to deliver the anticancer drugs cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). In this study, we selected genipin (GP) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA)
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To minimize the non-specific toxicity of drug combination during cancer therapy, we prepared a new system synthesized from bacteria to deliver the anticancer drugs cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and daunorubicin (DNR). In this study, we selected genipin (GP) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) as dual crosslinkers. Herewith, we demonstrated the preparation, characterization and in vitro antitumor effects of Ara-C and DNR loaded GP-PLGA-modified bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) (ADBMs-P). The results show that this new system is stable and exhibits optimal drug-loading properties. The average diameters of BMs and ADBMs-P were 42.0 ± 8.6 nm and 65.5 ± 8.9 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of ADBMs-P (−42.0 ± 6.4 mV) was significantly less than that of BMs (−28.6 ± 7.6 mV). The optimal encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of Ara-C were 68.4% ± 9.4% and 32.4% ± 2.9%, respectively, and those of DNR were 36.1% ± 2.5% and 17.9% ± 1.6%. Interestingly, this system also exhibits long-term release behaviour sequentially, without an initial burst release. The Ara-C drug continued to release about 85% within 40 days, while DNR release lasted only for 13 days. Moreover, similar to free drugs, ADBMs-Ps are strongly cytotoxic to cancer cells in vitro (HL-60 cells), with the inhibition rate approximately 96%. This study reveals that this new system has a potential for drug delivery application in the future, especially for combination therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging of the Microstructure of Sand Particles Subjected to High Pressure One-Dimensional Compression
Materials 2016, 9(11), 890; doi:10.3390/ma9110890
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (15259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the results of X-ray CT imaging of the microstructure of sand particles subjected to high pressure one-dimensional compression leading to particle crushing. A high resolution X-ray CT machine capable of in situ imaging was employed to capture images of the
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This paper presents the results of X-ray CT imaging of the microstructure of sand particles subjected to high pressure one-dimensional compression leading to particle crushing. A high resolution X-ray CT machine capable of in situ imaging was employed to capture images of the whole volume of a sand sample subjected to compressive stresses up to 79.3 MPa. Images of the whole sample obtained at different load stages were analysed using a commercial image processing software (Avizo) to reveal various microstructural properties, such as pore and particle volume distributions, spatial distribution of void ratios, relative breakage, and anisotropy of particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control
Materials 2016, 9(11), 891; doi:10.3390/ma9110891
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
PDF Full-text (17517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure.
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Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo tube to carbon steel pipe with chromium-containing filler. The cost of production could be reduced by the use of low cost material such as carbon steel pipe for boiler header. The effect of chromium content on corrosion behavior of the weld was greater than that of the microstructure. The lifetime of the welded boiler can be increased by improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the heat affected zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Additive Manufacturing of Patient-Customizable Scaffolds for Tubular Tissues Using the Melt-Drawing Method
Materials 2016, 9(11), 893; doi:10.3390/ma9110893
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymeric fibrous scaffolds for guiding cell growth are designed to be potentially used for the tissue engineering (TE) of tubular organs including esophagi, blood vessels, tracheas, etc. Tubular scaffolds were fabricated via melt-drawing of highly elastic poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLC) fibers layer-by-layer on
[...] Read more.
Polymeric fibrous scaffolds for guiding cell growth are designed to be potentially used for the tissue engineering (TE) of tubular organs including esophagi, blood vessels, tracheas, etc. Tubular scaffolds were fabricated via melt-drawing of highly elastic poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLC) fibers layer-by-layer on a cylindrical mandrel. The diameter and length of the scaffolds are customizable via 3D printing of the mandrel. Thickness of the scaffolds was varied by changing the number of layers of the melt-drawing process. The morphology and tensile properties of the PLC fibers were investigated. The fibers were highly aligned with a uniform diameter. Their diameters and tensile properties were tunable by varying the melt-drawing speeds. These tailorable topographies and tensile properties show that the additive-based scaffold fabrication technique is customizable at the micro- and macro-scale for different tubular tissues. The merits of these scaffolds in TE were further shown by the finding that myoblast and fibroblast cells seeded onto the scaffolds in vitro showed appropriate cell proliferation and distribution. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiated to smooth muscle lineage on the microfibrous scaffolds in the absence of soluble induction factors, showing cellular shape modulation and scaffold elasticity may encourage the myogenic differentiation of stem cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Health Monitoring Method for Structural Fatigue Life Evaluation Using Limited Sensor Data
Materials 2016, 9(11), 894; doi:10.3390/ma9110894
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general framework for structural fatigue life evaluation under fatigue cyclic loading using limited sensor data is proposed in this paper. First, limited sensor data are measured from various sensors which are preset on the complex structure. Then the strain data at remote
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A general framework for structural fatigue life evaluation under fatigue cyclic loading using limited sensor data is proposed in this paper. First, limited sensor data are measured from various sensors which are preset on the complex structure. Then the strain data at remote spots are used to obtain the strain responses at critical spots by the strain/stress reconstruction method based on empirical mode decomposition (REMD method). All the computations in this paper are directly performed in the time domain. After the local stress responses at critical spots are determined, fatigue life evaluation can be performed for structural health management and risk assessment. Fatigue life evaluation using the reconstructed stresses from remote strain gauge measurement data is also demonstrated with detailed error analysis. Following this, the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a three-dimensional frame structure and a simplified airfoil structure. Finally, several conclusions and future work are drawn based on the proposed study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Modelling and Optimization of the Temperature-Dependent Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Fused Deposition Fabricated Parts Made of PC-ABS
Materials 2016, 9(11), 895; doi:10.3390/ma9110895
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the
[...] Read more.
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing has been intensively used for many industrial applications due to its attractive advantages over traditional manufacturing processes. The process parameters used in FDM have significant influence on the part quality and its properties. This process produces the plastic part through complex mechanisms and it involves complex relationships between the manufacturing conditions and the quality of the processed part. In the present study, the influence of multi-level manufacturing parameters on the temperature-dependent dynamic mechanical properties of FDM processed parts was investigated using IV-optimality response surface methodology (RSM) and multilayer feed-forward neural networks (MFNNs). The process parameters considered for optimization and investigation are slice thickness, raster to raster air gap, deposition angle, part print direction, bead width, and number of perimeters. Storage compliance and loss compliance were considered as response variables. The effect of each process parameter was investigated using developed regression models and multiple regression analysis. The surface characteristics are studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, performance of optimum conditions was determined and validated by conducting confirmation experiment. The comparison between the experimental values and the predicted values by IV-Optimal RSM and MFNN was conducted for each experimental run and results indicate that the MFNN provides better predictions than IV-Optimal RSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Study on a Novel Phase Change Material Panel Based on Tetradecanol/Lauric Acid/Expanded Perlite/Aluminium Powder for Building Heat Storage
Materials 2016, 9(11), 896; doi:10.3390/ma9110896
Received: 2 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 5 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phase change material (PCM) used in buildings can reduce the building energy consumption and indoor temperature fluctuation. A composite PCM has been fabricated by the binary eutectic mixture of tetradecanol (TD) and lauric acid (LA) absorbed into the expanded perlite (EP) using vacuum
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Phase change material (PCM) used in buildings can reduce the building energy consumption and indoor temperature fluctuation. A composite PCM has been fabricated by the binary eutectic mixture of tetradecanol (TD) and lauric acid (LA) absorbed into the expanded perlite (EP) using vacuum impregnation method, and its thermal conductivity was promoted by aluminium powder (AP) additive. Besides, the styrene-acrylic emulsion has been mixed with the composite PCM particles to form the protective film, so as to solve the problem of leakage. Thus, a novel PCM panel (PCMP) has been prepared using compression moulding forming method. The thermal property, microstructure characteristic, mechanical property, thermal conductivity, thermal reliability and leakage of the composite PCM have been investigated and analysed. Meanwhile, the thermal performance of the prepared PCMP was tested through PCMPs installed on the inside wall of a cell under outdoor climatic conditions. The composite PCM has a melting temperature of 24.9 °C, a freezing temperature of 25.2 °C, a melting latent heat of 78.2 J/g and a freezing latent heat of 81.3 J/g. The thermal conductivity test exposed that the thermal conductivity has been enhanced with the addition of AP and the latent heat has been decreased, but it still remains in a high level. The leakage test result has proven that liquid PCM leaking has been avoided by the surface film method. The thermal performance experiment has shown the significant function of PCMP about adjusting the indoor temperature and reducing the heats transferring between the wall inside and outside. In view of the thermal performance, mechanical property and thermal reliability results, it can be concluded that the prepared PCMP has a promising building application potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Raman and Conductivity Analysis of Graphene for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2016, 9(11), 897; doi:10.3390/ma9110897
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract
In this study, we present a comprehensive investigation of graphene’s optical and conductive properties using confocal Raman and a Drude model. A comparative analysis between experimental findings and theoretical predictions of the material’s changes and improvements as it transitioned from three-dimensional graphite is
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In this study, we present a comprehensive investigation of graphene’s optical and conductive properties using confocal Raman and a Drude model. A comparative analysis between experimental findings and theoretical predictions of the material’s changes and improvements as it transitioned from three-dimensional graphite is also presented and discussed. Besides spectral recording by Raman, which reveals whether there is a single, a few, or multi-layers of graphene, the confocal Raman mapping allows for distinction of such domains and a direct visualization of material inhomogeneity. Drude model employment in the analysis of the far-infrared transmittance measurements demonstrates a distinct increase of the material’s conductivity with dimensionality reduction. Other particularly important material characteristics, including carrier concentration and time constant, were also determined using this model and presented here. Furthermore, the detection of micromolar concentration of dopamine on graphene surfaces not only proves that the Raman technique facilitates ultrasensitive chemical detection of analytes, besides offering high information content about the biomaterial under study, but also that carbon-based materials are biocompatible and favorable micro-environments for such detection. Such information is valuable for the development of bio-medical sensors, which is the main application envisioned for this analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials and Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption
Materials 2016, 9(11), 898; doi:10.3390/ma9110898
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract
Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA)-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica
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Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA)-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries), present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of a High Magnetic Field on the Annealing of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb4 Bulk Metallic Glass
Materials 2016, 9(11), 899; doi:10.3390/ma9110899
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract
In contrast with amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials show improved thermal stability and higher soft magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline soft magnetic composites are usually fabricated by partially crystallizing from parent amorphous alloys. This paper reports our experimental observation on the sequence of
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In contrast with amorphous alloys, nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials show improved thermal stability and higher soft magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline soft magnetic composites are usually fabricated by partially crystallizing from parent amorphous alloys. This paper reports our experimental observation on the sequence of crystallization in metallic glass under a high magnetic field (HMF). An application of a HMF to bulk metallic glass (BMG) of [(Fe0.5Co0.5)0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Nb4 prioritizes the precipitation of α-(Fe,Co) phase separated from the subsequent precipitation of borides, (Fe,Co)23B6, upon isothermal annealing at a glass transition temperature. Furthermore, it was observed that, through the annealing treatment under a HMF, a soft magnetic nanocomposite, in which only α-(Fe,Co) phase uniformly distributes in amorphous matrix, was achieved for boron-bearing BMG. The promotion of the α-Fe or (Fe,Co) phase and the prevention of the boride phases during the isothermal annealing process help to produce high-quality soft magnetic nanocomposite materials. The mechanism by which a HMF influences the crystallization sequence was interpreted via certain changes in Gibbs free energies for two ferromagnetic phases. This finding evidences that the annealing treatment under a HMF is suitable for enhancing the soft magnetic properties of high B content (Fe,Co)-based bulk amorphous and nanocrystalline materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of Auxetic Cellular Material Consisting of Re-Entrant Hexagonal Honeycombs
Materials 2016, 9(11), 900; doi:10.3390/ma9110900
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
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Abstract
A preliminary study of the mechanical properties of auxetic cellular material consisting of re-entrant hexagonal honeycombs is presented. For different scales of the honeycombs, the finite element method (FEM) and experimental models are used to perform a parametric analysis on the effects of
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A preliminary study of the mechanical properties of auxetic cellular material consisting of re-entrant hexagonal honeycombs is presented. For different scales of the honeycombs, the finite element method (FEM) and experimental models are used to perform a parametric analysis on the effects of the Poisson’s ratio (cell angle) and the relative density (cell thickness) of honeycombs on bearing capacity and dynamic performance of the auxetic material. The analysis demonstrates that the ultimate bearing capacity of the presented auxetic cellular material is scale-independent when the Poisson’s ratio and the relative density are kept constant. The relationship between the geometric parameters and vibration level difference of the honeycombs is also revealed, which can be divided into two converse parts around the Poisson’s ratio v = 1.5 . When v is smaller than −1.5, increasing the cell thickness leads to an increase in the vibration level difference of the honeycombs. Moreover, the dynamic performance of thin-walled honeycombs is greatly influenced by the scale of the honeycombs, especially for the ones with small Poisson’s ratio. These conclusions are verified by a frequency response test and a good agreement between the numerical results and experimental data is achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Multiscale Modeling and Simulation in Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle Linear and Nonlinear Guided Wave Imaging of Impact Damage in CFRP Using a Probabilistic Approach
Materials 2016, 9(11), 901; doi:10.3390/ma9110901
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
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Abstract
The amount and variety of composite structures that need to be inspected for the presence of impact damage has grown significantly in the last few decades. In this paper, an application of a probabilistic ultrasonic guided wave imaging technique for impact damage detection
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The amount and variety of composite structures that need to be inspected for the presence of impact damage has grown significantly in the last few decades. In this paper, an application of a probabilistic ultrasonic guided wave imaging technique for impact damage detection in carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) is presented. On the one hand, a linear, baseline-dependent, technique utilizing the well-known correlation-based RAPID method and an array of piezoelectric transducers is applied to detect impact-induced damage in plate-like composite structures. Furthermore, a baseline-independent nonlinear extension of the standard RAPID method is proposed, and its performance is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. Compared to the conventional RAPID, the baseline-free version suffers from a somewhat lower imaging quality. However, this drawback is compensated by the fact that no damage-free (intact) baseline is necessary for successful imaging of damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Pressure-Induced Phase Transition and Mechanical Properties of Mg2Sr Intermetallics
Materials 2016, 9(11), 902; doi:10.3390/ma9110902
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
A pressure-induced phase transition of Mg2Sr intermetallics from the low-pressure C14-type phase to an orthorhombic phase (space group Cmcm, Z = 4) at a high pressure of 21.0 GPa was firstly predicted using first-principles calculations combined with unbiased swarm structure
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A pressure-induced phase transition of Mg2Sr intermetallics from the low-pressure C14-type phase to an orthorhombic phase (space group Cmcm, Z = 4) at a high pressure of 21.0 GPa was firstly predicted using first-principles calculations combined with unbiased swarm structure searching techniques. The phase transition was identified as a first-order nature with a volume drop of 4.7%, driven by the softening of elastic behavior at high pressure. Further phonon calculations indicate that the newly predicted orthorhombic phase is dynamically stable at high pressure and ambient pressure. The mechanical properties including the elastic anisotropy of this orthorhombic phase were thus fully studied at ambient pressure. The elastic anisotropy behavior of this orthorhombic phase was investigated by the distributions of elastic moduli. The evidence of the bonding nature of Mg–Sr was also manifested by density of states (DOS) and electronic localization function (ELF) calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle The Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of TiC Powders
Materials 2016, 9(11), 904; doi:10.3390/ma9110904
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
Titanium carbide (TiC) is an important engineering material and has found widespread applications. Currently, TiC is typically synthesized through carbothermal reduction, requiring a high temperature (ca. 1700–2300 °C) and long reaction time (ca. 10–20 h), which is not eco-friendly. During a conventional reaction
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Titanium carbide (TiC) is an important engineering material and has found widespread applications. Currently, TiC is typically synthesized through carbothermal reduction, requiring a high temperature (ca. 1700–2300 °C) and long reaction time (ca. 10–20 h), which is not eco-friendly. During a conventional reaction path, anatase TiO2 (A-TiO2) was first converted to rutile TiO2 (R-TiO2), which was subsequently reduced to TiC. Herein, we explored the synthesis of TiC powders with the assistance of microwave heating. In particular, we achieved the conversion of A-TiO2, which was more reactive than R-TiO2 for the carbothermal reduction, to TiC, which was directly due to quick microwave heating. As such, the carbothermal reduction started at a much lower temperature of ca. 1200 °C and finished within 30 min when reacting at 1400 °C, leading to significant energy saving. This study shows that microwave-assisted synthesis can be an effective and green process for preparing TiC powders, which is promising for future large-scale production. The influence of the reaction temperature, the reaction duration, and the carbon content on the synthesis of TiC powders was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials and Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles
Materials 2016, 9(11), 905; doi:10.3390/ma9110905
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable
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Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Microscale Testing and Modelling of Cement Paste as Basis for Multi-Scale Modelling
Materials 2016, 9(11), 907; doi:10.3390/ma9110907
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
This work aims to provide a method for numerically and experimentally investigating the fracture mechanism of cement paste at the microscale. For this purpose, a new procedure was proposed to prepare micro cement paste cubes (100 × 100 × 100 µm3)
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This work aims to provide a method for numerically and experimentally investigating the fracture mechanism of cement paste at the microscale. For this purpose, a new procedure was proposed to prepare micro cement paste cubes (100 × 100 × 100 µm3) and beams with a square cross section of 400 × 400 µm2. By loading the cubes to failure with a Berkovich indenter, the global mechanical properties of cement paste were obtained with the aid of a nano-indenter. Simultaneously the 3D images of cement paste with a resolution of 2 µm3/voxel were generated by applying X-ray microcomputed tomography to a micro beam. After image segmentation, a cubic volume with the same size as the experimental tested specimen was extracted from the segmented images and used as input in the lattice model to simulate the fracture process of this heterogeneous microstructure under indenter loading. The input parameters for lattice elements are local mechanical properties of different phases. These properties were calibrated from experimental measured load displacement diagrams and failure modes in which the same boundary condition as in simulation were applied. Finally, the modified lattice model was applied to predict the global performance of this microcube under uniaxial tension. The simulated Young’s modulus agrees well with the experimental data. With the method presented in this paper the framework for fitting and validation of the modelling at microscale was created, which forms a basis for multi-scale analysis of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper
Materials 2016, 9(11), 908; doi:10.3390/ma9110908
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract
This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n
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This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/group). Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i) milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM); (ii) pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP) (BioHPP Pellet); or (iii) pressed from granular PEEK (PG) (BioHPP Granulat). One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé’s post-hoc test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05). Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Electrocapacitive Properties of Hierarchical Porous Carbons Based on Loofah Sponge
Materials 2016, 9(11), 912; doi:10.3390/ma9110912
Received: 2 October 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract
Four porous carbon samples denoted as LSC-1, LSC-2, LCS-3, and LSC-4 were prepared by carbonization of loofah sponge pretreated by ZnCl2 activation, immersion in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), DMF-assisted solvothermal and melamine-assisted hydrothermal processes, and the specific surface areas were 1007,
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Four porous carbon samples denoted as LSC-1, LSC-2, LCS-3, and LSC-4 were prepared by carbonization of loofah sponge pretreated by ZnCl2 activation, immersion in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), DMF-assisted solvothermal and melamine-assisted hydrothermal processes, and the specific surface areas were 1007, 799, 773, and 538 m2·g−1 with mainly micropores, respectively. Electrocapacitive properties of four porous carbon-based electrodes were investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in symmetric supercapacitors. All the cyclic voltammetries of four types of supercapacitors showed a rectangular shape, even under a high scan rate of 500 mV·s−1. The capacitances of LSC-1, LSC-2, LSC-3, and LSC-4 were 107.4, 92.5, 60.3, and 82.3 F·g−1 at the current density of 0.1 A·g−1, respectively, and LSC-1 displayed the excellent capacitance retention of about 81.3% with a current density up to 5 A·g−1. All supercapacitors showed excellent electrochemical stability, and the LSC-1-based supercapacitor showed a cycle stability with 92.6% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A·g−1. The structure–property relationship of LSC samples is discussed and analyzed on the basis of the experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle End-Functionalized Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with d-Glucosamine through Different Initiator from C-1 and C-2 Positions via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization
Materials 2016, 9(11), 913; doi:10.3390/ma9110913
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regioselective modification of d-glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose, GA) through C-1 and C-2 positions to synthesized thermo-responsive D-Glucosamine-poly(N-iso-propylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated for the first time. Two different schemes of the synthesis for GA derivatives (GA-PNIPAM
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Regioselective modification of d-glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose, GA) through C-1 and C-2 positions to synthesized thermo-responsive D-Glucosamine-poly(N-iso-propylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated for the first time. Two different schemes of the synthesis for GA derivatives (GA-PNIPAM (i) and (ii)) with well-defined structures using 3,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-β-d-glucopyranose and 1,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose intermediates were examined. The GA-PNIPAM (ii) had an amino at C-2 position, while there was a hydroxyl in GA-PNIPAM (i) at this position. Both the resulting oligomers (i) and (ii) had a narrow dispersity, and no significant cytotoxic response of copolymers (i) and (ii) was observed in the cell line over the concentration range from 0.1 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL at any of the exposure times. In addition, it was discovered that GA-PNIPAM (i) and (ii) inhibited the proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells HepG2 as the concentration and the time changed, and the inhibitory activity of polymer (ii) was higher than that of he (i). The results suggest that the GA-PNIPAM polymers show excellent biocompatibility in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials and Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Cu:Ag Atomic Ratio on the Properties of Sputtered Cu–Ag Alloy Thin Films
Materials 2016, 9(11), 914; doi:10.3390/ma9110914
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract
Cu–Ag thin films with various atomic ratios were prepared using a co-sputtering technique, followed by rapid thermal annealing at various temperatures. The films’ structural, mechanical, and electrical properties were then characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), FESEM, nano-indentation, and TEM
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Cu–Ag thin films with various atomic ratios were prepared using a co-sputtering technique, followed by rapid thermal annealing at various temperatures. The films’ structural, mechanical, and electrical properties were then characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), FESEM, nano-indentation, and TEM as functions of compositions and annealing conditions. In the as-deposited condition, the structure of these films transformed from a one-phase to a dual-phase state, and the resistivity shows a twin-peak pattern, which can be explained in part by Nordheim’s Rule and the miscibility gap of Cu–Ag alloy. After being annealed, the films’ resistivity followed the mixture rule in general, mainly due to the formation of a dual-phase structure containing Ag-rich and Cu-rich phases. The surface morphology and structure also varied as compositions and annealing conditions changed. The recrystallization of these films varied depending on Ag–Cu compositions. The annealed films composed of 40 at % to 60 at % Cu had higher hardness and lower roughness than those with other compositions. Particularly, the Cu50Ag50 film had the highest hardness after being annealed. From the dissolution testing, it was found that the Cu-ion concentration was about 40 times higher than that of Ag. The galvanic effect and over-saturated state could be the cause of the accelerated Cu dissolution and the reduced dissolution of the Ag. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of the Vickers Microhardness and Ultimate Tensile Strength of AA5754 H111 Friction Stir Welding Butt Joints Using Artificial Neural Network
Materials 2016, 9(11), 915; doi:10.3390/ma9110915
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
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Abstract
A simulation model was developed for the monitoring, controlling and optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. This approach, using the FSW technique, allows identifying the correlation between the process parameters (input variable) and the mechanical properties (output responses) of the welded
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A simulation model was developed for the monitoring, controlling and optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. This approach, using the FSW technique, allows identifying the correlation between the process parameters (input variable) and the mechanical properties (output responses) of the welded AA5754 H111 aluminum plates. The optimization of technological parameters is a basic requirement for increasing the seam quality, since it promotes a stable and defect-free process. Both the tool rotation and the travel speed, the position of the samples extracted from the weld bead and the thermal data, detected with thermographic techniques for on-line control of the joints, were varied to build the experimental plans. The quality of joints was evaluated through destructive and non-destructive tests (visual tests, macro graphic analysis, tensile tests, indentation Vickers hardness tests and t thermographic controls). The simulation model was based on the adoption of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) characterized by back-propagation learning algorithm with different types of architecture, which were able to predict with good reliability the FSW process parameters for the welding of the AA5754 H111 aluminum plates in Butt-Joint configuration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures
Materials 2016, 9(11), 916; doi:10.3390/ma9110916
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was
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This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Filmy Black-Phosphorus Polyimide Saturable Absorber for Q-Switched Operation in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser
Materials 2016, 9(11), 917; doi:10.3390/ma9110917
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black-phosphorus polyimide film. The multi-layer black-phosphorus (BP) nanosheets were prepared via a liquid exfoliation approach exploiting N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By mixing the BP nanosheets with polyimide (PI), a piece of
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We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black-phosphorus polyimide film. The multi-layer black-phosphorus (BP) nanosheets were prepared via a liquid exfoliation approach exploiting N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By mixing the BP nanosheets with polyimide (PI), a piece of BP–PI film was obtained after evaporating the mixture in a petri dish. The BP–PI saturable absorber had a modulation depth of 0.47% and was inserted into an erbium-doped fiber laser to realize passive Q-switched operations. The repetition rate of the Q-switched laser increased from 5.73 kHz to 31.07 kHz when the laser pump was enhanced from 31.78 mW to 231.46 mW. Our results show that PI is an excellent host material to protect BP from oxidation, and the BP–PI film can act as a promising nonlinear optical device for laser applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Optical Material)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Superdielectric Materials: Aqueous Salt Solution Saturated Fabric
Materials 2016, 9(11), 918; doi:10.3390/ma9110918
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
The dielectric constants of nylon fabrics saturated with aqueous NaCl solutions, Fabric-Superdielectric Materials (F-SDM), were measured to be >105 even at the shortest discharge times (>0.001 s) for which reliable data could be obtained using the constant current method, thus demonstrating the
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The dielectric constants of nylon fabrics saturated with aqueous NaCl solutions, Fabric-Superdielectric Materials (F-SDM), were measured to be >105 even at the shortest discharge times (>0.001 s) for which reliable data could be obtained using the constant current method, thus demonstrating the existence of a third class of SDM. Hence, the present results support the general theoretical SDM hypothesis, which is also supported by earlier experimental work with powder and anodized foil matrices: Any material composed of liquid containing dissolved, mobile ions, confined in an electrically insulating matrix, will have a very high dielectric constant. Five capacitors, each composed of a different number of layers of salt solution saturated nylon fabric, were studied, using a galvanostat operated in constant current mode. Capacitance, dielectric constant, energy density and power density as a function of discharge time, for discharge times from ~100 s to nearly 0.001 s were recorded. The roll-off rate of the first three parameters was found to be nearly identical for all five capacitors tested. The power density increased in all cases with decreasing discharge time, but again the observed frequency response was nearly identical for all five capacitors. Operational limitations found for F-SDM are the same as those for other aqueous solution SDM, particularly a low maximum operating voltage (~2.3 V), and dielectric “constants” that are a function of voltage, decreasing for voltages higher than ~0.8 V. Extrapolations of the present data set suggest F-SDM could be the key to inexpensive, high energy density (>75 J/cm3) capacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of In Situ Reinforced Titanium Composites by Inductive Hot Pressing
Materials 2016, 9(11), 919; doi:10.3390/ma9110919
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract
This research is focused on the influence of processing temperature on titanium matrix composites reinforced through Ti, Al, and B4C reactions. In order to investigate the effect of Ti-Al based intermetallic compounds on the properties of the composites, aluminum powder was
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This research is focused on the influence of processing temperature on titanium matrix composites reinforced through Ti, Al, and B4C reactions. In order to investigate the effect of Ti-Al based intermetallic compounds on the properties of the composites, aluminum powder was incorporated into the starting materials. In this way, in situ TixAly were expected to form as well as TiB and TiC. The specimens were fabricated by the powder metallurgy technique known as inductive hot pressing (iHP), using a temperature range between 900 °C and 1400 °C, at 40 MPa for 5 min. Raising the inductive hot pressing temperature may affect the microstructure and properties of the composites. Consequently, the variations of the reinforcing phases were investigated. X-ray diffraction, microstructural analysis, and mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and hardness) of the specimens were carried out to evaluate and determine the significant influence of the processing temperature on the behavior of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of EDC on Dentin-Resin Shear Bond Strength and Demineralized Dentin Thermal Properties
Materials 2016, 9(11), 920; doi:10.3390/ma9110920
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the bonding strength and thermal properties of demineralized dentin with and without EDC treatment. Sound human molars were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (n = 20): control, 80% ethanol, and five EDC ethanol solutions (0.01–1.0 M).
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This study aimed to evaluate the bonding strength and thermal properties of demineralized dentin with and without EDC treatment. Sound human molars were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (n = 20): control, 80% ethanol, and five EDC ethanol solutions (0.01–1.0 M). In each group, 16 samples were used for bond strength assessment and 4 samples were used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. A further 70 intact molars were used to obtain a fine demineralized dentin powder, treated with the same solutions and were evaluated the crosslink degree by ninhydrin test and denaturation temperature (Td) by differential scanning calorimetry. EDC-treated specimens (<1.0 M) had a higher bond strength, especially 0.3 and 0.5 M group, than the control counterpart. There was a significant drop in bond strength of 1.0 M EDC group. SEM revealed a homogeneous and regular interface under all treatments. EDC treatment significantly increased the demineralized dentin cross-link degree and Td compared with the control and ethanol treatments. The 0.3 and 0.5 M treatments showed the highest cross-link degree and Td. In terms of mechnical and theramal properties consideration, 0.3 and 0.5 M EDC solutions may be favorable for when applied with etch-and-rinse adhesives, but it is still needed further long-term study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oxygen Evolution at Manganite Perovskite Ruddlesden-Popper Type Particles: Trends of Activity on Structure, Valence and Covalence
Materials 2016, 9(11), 921; doi:10.3390/ma9110921
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An improved understanding of the correlation between the electronic properties of Mn-O bonds, activity and stability of electro-catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance for an improved catalyst design. Here, an in-depth study of the relation between lattice structure,
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An improved understanding of the correlation between the electronic properties of Mn-O bonds, activity and stability of electro-catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance for an improved catalyst design. Here, an in-depth study of the relation between lattice structure, electronic properties and catalyst performance of the perovskite Ca1−xPrxMnO3 and the first-order RP-system Ca2−xPrxMnO4 at doping levels of x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 is presented. Lattice structure is determined by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn-L and O-K edges gives access to Mn valence and covalency of the Mn-O bond. Oxygen evolution activity and stability is measured by rotating ring disc electrode studies. We demonstrate that the highest activity and stability coincidences for systems with a Mn-valence state of +3.7, though also requiring that the covalency of the Mn-O bond has a relative minimum. This observation points to an oxygen evolution mechanism with high redox activity of Mn. Covalency should be large enough for facile electron transfer from adsorbed oxygen species to the MnO6 network; however, it should not be hampered by oxidation of the lattice oxygen, which might cause a crossover to material degradation. Since valence and covalency changes are not entirely independent, the introduction of the energy position of the eg pre-edge peak in the O-K spectra as a new descriptor for oxygen evolution is suggested, leading to a volcano-like representation of the OER activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue (Photo)Electrochemistry of Perovskites)
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Open AccessArticle (Bi,Sr) (Fe1−x,Mx)O3−δ (M = Co, Ni and Mn) Cathode Materials with Mixed Electro-Ionic Conductivity
Materials 2016, 9(11), 922; doi:10.3390/ma9110922
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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Abstract
(Bi,Sr)FeO3−δ (BSF) cathode materials doped with either Co, Ni or Mn are synthesized by an ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-citrate complexing method, and the effects of the doping level on the mixed electronic-ionic conductivity at various temperatures are studied up to 800
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(Bi,Sr)FeO3−δ (BSF) cathode materials doped with either Co, Ni or Mn are synthesized by an ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-citrate complexing method, and the effects of the doping level on the mixed electronic-ionic conductivity at various temperatures are studied up to 800 °C. The phase purity and solid solution limit are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ionic conductivity is measured by the four-probe direct current (DC) method, the valence state of Fe and Mn by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the oxygen non-stoichiometry by differential thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The doped ferrites show interesting electronic conductivity dependent on the testing temperature, implying two conductive mechanisms, either controlled by double exchange at lower temperatures or small polaron (electron-oxygen vacancy) conduction at temperatures greater than 400 °C. The results of Co-doped BSF (S50C20) show the best mixed conductivity among the ferrites, and this is used to assemble cells. The cell with a S50C20 cathode in the region of 600–800 °C is improved by 15% in maximum power density greater than the cell with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF) due to the balanced contribution from oxygen ions, vacancies and electrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials for Energy Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Metamaterial Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Means of Ultrasound-Assisted Extrusion
Materials 2016, 9(11), 923; doi:10.3390/ma9110923
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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Abstract
Metamaterial behavior of polymer nanocomposites (NCs) based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated based on the observation of a negative dielectric constant (ε′). It is demonstrated that as the dielectric constant switches from negative to positive, the plasma
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Metamaterial behavior of polymer nanocomposites (NCs) based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated based on the observation of a negative dielectric constant (ε′). It is demonstrated that as the dielectric constant switches from negative to positive, the plasma frequency (ωp) depends strongly on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method, as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. NCs were fabricated using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods with 10 wt % loadings of MWCNTs in iPPs with different melt flow indices (MFI). AC electrical conductivity (σ(AC)) as a function of frequency was determined to complement the electrical classification of the NCs, which were previously designated as insulating (I), static-dissipative (SD), and conductive (C) materials. It was found that the SD and C materials can also be classified as metamaterials (M). This type of behavior emerges from the negative dielectric constant observed at low frequencies although, at certain frequencies, the dielectric constant becomes positive. Our method of fabrication allows for the preparation of metamaterials with tunable ωp. iPP pure samples show only positive dielectric constants. Electrical conductivity increases in all cases with the addition of MWCNTs with the largest increases observed for samples with the highest MFI. A relationship between MFI and the fabrication method, with respect to electrical properties, is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Cement Composites with Ordered Microstructures via Doping with Graphene Oxide Nanosheets and an Investigation of Their Strength and Durability
Materials 2016, 9(11), 924; doi:10.3390/ma9110924
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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Abstract
The main problem with cement composites is that they have structural defects, including cracks, holes, and a disordered morphology, which significantly affects their strength and durability. Therefore, the construction of cement composites with defect-free structures and high strength and long durability is an
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The main problem with cement composites is that they have structural defects, including cracks, holes, and a disordered morphology, which significantly affects their strength and durability. Therefore, the construction of cement composites with defect-free structures and high strength and long durability is an important research topic. Here, by controlling the size and chemical groups of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) used for doping, we were able to control the entire cement matrix to form an ordered microstructure consisting of polyhedron-like crystals and exhibit flower-like patterns. The cracks and holes in the cement matrix just about vanished. The compressive and flexural strengths as well as the parameters for the durability assessment of the corresponding cement composites obviously improved compared with the control samples. Thus, the formation mechanism of the cement matrix with the ordered microstructure is proposed, and a proper explanation is given to regulation action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Failure Micromechanics and Toughening Mechanisms of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Electrochemical Methods for the Evaluation of Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 925; doi:10.3390/ma9110925
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a
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Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a comparison of applications of the linear polarization method (from −100 mV to +200 mV vs. EOCP), the cathodic polarization of the specimen (−100 mV vs. EOCP), and the anodic polarization of the specimen (+100 mV vs. EOCP), and a discussion of the differences in the obtained values of the electrochemical characteristics of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. The corrosion current density obtained by cathodic polarization was similar to the corrosion current density obtained by linear polarization, while a lower value was obtained by anodic polarization. Signs of corrosion attack were observed only in the case of linear polarization including cathodic and anodic polarization of the specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Tissue-Like Phantoms as a Platform for Inserted Fluorescence Nano-Probes
Materials 2016, 9(11), 926; doi:10.3390/ma9110926
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
Tissue-like phantoms are widely used as a model for mimicking the optical properties of live tissue. This paper presents the results of a diffusion reflection method and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy measurements of fluorescein-conjugated gold nanorods in solution, as well as inserted in
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Tissue-like phantoms are widely used as a model for mimicking the optical properties of live tissue. This paper presents the results of a diffusion reflection method and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy measurements of fluorescein-conjugated gold nanorods in solution, as well as inserted in solid tissue-imitating phantoms. A lack of consistency between the fluorescence lifetime results of the solutions and the phantoms raises a question about the ability of tissue-like phantoms to maintain the optical properties of inserted contrast agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoprobes for Imaging)
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Open AccessArticle ZnO-Layered Double Hydroxide@Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composite for Consecutive Adsorption and Photodegradation of Dyes under UV and Visible Lights
Materials 2016, 9(11), 927; doi:10.3390/ma9110927
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, a ZnO-layered double hydroxide@graphitic carbon nitride composite (ZnO-LDH@C3N4) was synthesized via co-precipitation method with solvothermal treatment. The structure and morphology of ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
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In this work, a ZnO-layered double hydroxide@graphitic carbon nitride composite (ZnO-LDH@C3N4) was synthesized via co-precipitation method with solvothermal treatment. The structure and morphology of ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopes/transmission electron microscopes (SEM/TEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, ultraviolet visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis-DRS), photoluminescence spectrometer (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The adsorption and photocatalytic properties of ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite towards the organic dyes: Orange II sodium salt (OrgII, an anionic azo dye) and methylene blue (MB, a cationic azo dye) were investigated. Compared to ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4, the ZnO-LDH@C3N4 composite displayed an excellent performance in both adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of the organic dyes. Moreover, a combination of ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4 significantly improved the photocatalytic performance of ZnO-LDH and g-C3N4 under visible-light irradiation. The adsorption and photocatalytic mechanism were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Water Technology)
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Open AccessCommunication Mechanical Properties and In Vitro Degradation of Sputtered Biodegradable Fe-Au Foils
Materials 2016, 9(11), 928; doi:10.3390/ma9110928
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
Iron-based materials proved being a viable candidate material for biodegradable implants. Magnetron sputtering combined with UV-lithography offers the possibility to fabricate structured, freestanding foils of iron-based alloys and even composites with non-solvable elements. In order to accelerate the degradation speed and enhance the
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Iron-based materials proved being a viable candidate material for biodegradable implants. Magnetron sputtering combined with UV-lithography offers the possibility to fabricate structured, freestanding foils of iron-based alloys and even composites with non-solvable elements. In order to accelerate the degradation speed and enhance the mechanical properties, the technique was used to fabricate Fe-Au multilayer foils. The foils were annealed after the deposition to form a homogeneous microstructure with fine Au precipitates. The characterization of the mechanical properties was done by uniaxial tensile tests. The degradation behavior was analyzed by electrochemical tests and immersion tests under in vitro conditions. Due to the noble Au precipitates it was possible to achieve high tensile strengths between 550 and 800 MPa depending on the Au content and heat treatment. Furthermore, the Fe-Au foils showed a significantly accelerated corrosion compared to pure iron samples. The high mechanical strength is close to the properties of SS316L steel. In combination with the accelerated degradation rate, sputtered Fe-Au foils showed promising properties for use as iron-based, biodegradable implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Freckle Defect Formation near the Casting Interfaces of Directionally Solidified Superalloys
Materials 2016, 9(11), 929; doi:10.3390/ma9110929
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS) and
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Freckle defects usually appear on the surface of castings and industrial ingots during the directional solidification process and most of them are located near the interface between the shell mold and superalloys. Ceramic cores create more interfaces in the directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) hollow turbine blades. In order to investigate the location of freckle occurrence in superalloys, superalloy CM247 LC was directionally solidified in an industrial-sized Bridgman furnace. Instead of ceramic cores, Alumina tubes were used inside of the casting specimens. It was found that freckles occur not only on the casting external surfaces, but also appear near the internal interfaces between the ceramic core and superalloys. Meanwhile, the size, initial position, and area of freckle were investigated in various diameters of the specimens. The initial position of the freckle chain reduces when the diameter of the rods increase. Freckle area follows a linear relationship in various diameters and the average freckle fraction is 1.1% of cross sectional area of casting specimens. The flow of liquid metal near the interfaces was stronger than that in the interdendritic region in the mushy zone, and explained why freckle tends to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of castings. This new phenomenon suggests that freckles are more likely to occur on the outer or inner surfaces of the hollow turbine blades. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Separation of Hydrogen from Carbon Dioxide through Porous Ceramics
Materials 2016, 9(11), 930; doi:10.3390/ma9110930
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
The gas permeability of α-alumina, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and silicon carbide porous ceramics toward H2, CO2, and H2–CO2 mixtures were investigated at room temperature. The permeation of H2 and CO2 single gases occurred above
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The gas permeability of α-alumina, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and silicon carbide porous ceramics toward H2, CO2, and H2–CO2 mixtures were investigated at room temperature. The permeation of H2 and CO2 single gases occurred above a critical pressure gradient, which was smaller for H2 gas than for CO2 gas. When the Knudsen number (λ/r ratio, λ: molecular mean free path, r: pore radius) of a single gas was larger than unity, Knudsen flow became the dominant gas transportation process. The H2 fraction for the mixed gas of (20%–80%) H2–(80%–20%) CO2 through porous Al2O3, YSZ, and SiC approached unity with decreasing pressure gradient. The high fraction of H2 gas was closely related to the difference in the critical pressure gradient values of H2 and CO2 single gas, the inlet mixed gas composition, and the gas flow mechanism of the mixed gas. Moisture in the atmosphere adsorbed easily on the porous ceramics and affected the critical pressure gradient, leading to the increased selectivity of H2 gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility of Using Unbound Mixed Recycled Aggregates from CDW over Expansive Clay Subgrade in Unpaved Rural Roads
Materials 2016, 9(11), 931; doi:10.3390/ma9110931
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
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Abstract
Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies
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Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies in the field of waste recycling, which encourages and promotes waste use. Reusing and recycling construction waste in the creation of buildings and infrastructure are fundamental strategies to achieving sustainability in the construction and engineering sectors. In this context, the concept of waste would no longer exist, as waste would become a material resource. Therefore, this study analyses the behaviours of two unbound mixed recycled aggregates (MRA) in the structural layers of an unpaved rural road with low traffic (category T43). The sections were built on inappropriate soil (A-7-6) with a high degree of free swelling. The experimental road consisted of three sections: the first was made with natural aggregates (NA) that were used as a control, the second was composed of MRA in the subbase and NA in the base, and the third section was completely composed of MRA. The materials were characterised in the laboratory. The behaviours of the structural layers in the experimental road were determined by controlling compaction (“in situ” density and moisture) and measuring the deflections and load capacity (deflectometer) during the 18 months after construction. The results show that the sections made with recycled aggregates meet the technical specifications required by General Technical Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (PG-3). Therefore, the water-soluble sulphate content and Los Angeles abrasion coefficient limits can be increased for recycled aggregates without compromising the quality of this type of road with low traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the use of unbound MRA made from construction and demolition waste (CDW) in the construction of an unpaved rural road with low traffic on an expansive clay subgrade. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating and Modeling the Internal Diffusion Behaviors of Microencapsulated Rejuvenator in Aged Bitumen by FTIR-ATR Tests
Materials 2016, 9(11), 932; doi:10.3390/ma9110932
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
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Abstract
Microencapsulated rejuvenator has been attracted much attention for self-healing bitumen. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters to estimate the feasibility of rejuvenator to age bitumen. The objective of this research was to evaluate diffusion behaviors of microencapsulated rejuvenator in aged
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Microencapsulated rejuvenator has been attracted much attention for self-healing bitumen. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters to estimate the feasibility of rejuvenator to age bitumen. The objective of this research was to evaluate diffusion behaviors of microencapsulated rejuvenator in aged bitumen by a FTIR-ATR method. Various microcapsule samples were mixed in bitumen to form thin films. The core material of microcapsules used as rejuvenator was diphenylsilane (DPS), its fairly specific absorption band at 843 cm−1 was selected as a marker band to calculate the diffusion coefficient (D). The microstructure parameters, including contents, mean size and mean shell thickness of microcapsules, were considered to understand the diffusion behaviors under different temperatures (20, 30, 40 and 50 °C) in bitumen. The results showed that a larger mean size of microcapsules did not greatly affect the D values under the same temperature. In contrast, a higher mean shell thickness decreased the D values because of the decrement of damage probability of microcapsules under the same content. With the same microcapsule sample in bitumen, the D values presented a trend of linear increase when the content of microcapsules was increased. All these results indicated that the microstructure affected the diffusion behaviors based on the concentration of released rejuvenator. A preliminary model of diffusion behaviors of microencapsulated rejuvenator in bitumen was given based on the Arrhenius equation considering the microstructure of microcapsules, the amount of released rejuvenator and the age degree of bitumen. This model may be a guide to the construction and application of self-healing bitumen using microcapsules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Studying the Hydration of a Retarded Suspension of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag after Reactivation
Materials 2016, 9(11), 933; doi:10.3390/ma9110933
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
This article presents a combined use of a retarder (d-gluconic acid) and an alkaline activator (sodium hydroxide) in a binder system based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag. The properties of the retarder are extending the dormant hydration period and suppressing the
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This article presents a combined use of a retarder (d-gluconic acid) and an alkaline activator (sodium hydroxide) in a binder system based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag. The properties of the retarder are extending the dormant hydration period and suppressing the generation of strength-giving phases. Different retarder concentrations between 0.25 and 1.00 wt.% regulate the intensity and the period of the retardation and also the characteristics of the strength development. The activator concentration of 30 and 50 wt.% regulates the overcoming of the dormant period and thereby the solution of the slag and hence the formation of the hydration products. The research objective is to produce a mineral binder system based on two separate liquid components. The highest concentration of retarder and activator generates the highest compressive strength and mass of hydration products—after 90 days of hydration a compressive strength of more than 50 N/mm2. The main phases are calcium silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite. Generally, the combination of retarder and activator shows a high potential in the performance increase of the hydration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Bioactivity Evaluation of (Polyetheretherketone/Polyglycolicacid)-Hydroyapatite Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration
Materials 2016, 9(11), 934; doi:10.3390/ma9110934
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
Bioactivity and biocompatibility are crucial for tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was incorporated into polyetheretherketone/polyglycolicacid (PEEK/PGA) hybrid to improve its biological properties, and the composite scaffolds were developed via selective laser sintering (SLS). The effects of HAP on physical and
[...] Read more.
Bioactivity and biocompatibility are crucial for tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was incorporated into polyetheretherketone/polyglycolicacid (PEEK/PGA) hybrid to improve its biological properties, and the composite scaffolds were developed via selective laser sintering (SLS). The effects of HAP on physical and chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The results demonstrated that HAP particles were distributed evenly in PEEK/PGA matrix when its content was no more than 10 wt %. Furthermore, the apatite-forming ability became better with increasing HAP content after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF). Meanwhile, the composite scaffolds presented a greater degree of cell attachment and proliferation than PEEK/PGA scaffolds. These results highlighted the potential of (PEEK/PGA)-HAP scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication Energy Storage Characteristics of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 Bi-Layers Integrated on Si
Materials 2016, 9(11), 935; doi:10.3390/ma9110935
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
BiFeO3/BaTiO3 bi-layer thick films (~1 μm) were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/(100) Si substrates with LaNiO3 buffer layers at 500 °C via a rf magnetron sputtering process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that both BiFeO3 and BaTiO3
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BiFeO3/BaTiO3 bi-layer thick films (~1 μm) were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/(100) Si substrates with LaNiO3 buffer layers at 500 °C via a rf magnetron sputtering process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that both BiFeO3 and BaTiO3 layers have a (00l) preferred orientation. The films showed a small remnant polarization (Pr ~ 7.8 μC/cm2) and a large saturated polarization (Ps ~ 65 μC/cm2), resulting in a slim polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop with improved energy storage characteristics (Wc = 71 J/cm3, η = 61%). The successful “slim-down” of the P-E loop from that of the pure BiFeO3 film can be attributed to the competing effects of space charges and the interlayer charge coupling on charge transport of the bi-layer film. The accompanying electrical properties of the bi-layer films were measured and the results confirmed their good quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Absorbing and Energy Storage Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti/W Energetic Materials under Explosive Loading
Materials 2016, 9(11), 936; doi:10.3390/ma9110936
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
Metal/fluoropolymer composites represent a new category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under shock loading conditions. This paper describes an experiment designed to study the reaction characteristics of energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading. Three
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Metal/fluoropolymer composites represent a new category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under shock loading conditions. This paper describes an experiment designed to study the reaction characteristics of energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading. Three PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)/Ti/W mixtures with different W contents are processed through pressing and sintering. An inert PTFE/W mixture without reactive Ti particles is also prepared to serve as a reference. Shock-induced chemical reactions are recorded by high-speed video through a narrow observation window. Related shock parameters are calculated based on experimental data, and differences in energy release are discussed. The results show that the reaction propagation of PTFE/Ti/W energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading is not self-sustained. As propagation distance increases, the energy release gradually decreases. In addition, reaction failure distance in PTFE/Ti/W composites is inversely proportional to the W content. Porosity increased the failure distance due to higher shock temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Solar-Induced Photoelectrochemical Response Using Coupling Semiconductor TiO2-ZnO Nanorod Film
Materials 2016, 9(11), 937; doi:10.3390/ma9110937
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod
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Efficient solar driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) response by enhancing charge separation has attracted great interest in the hydrogen generation application. The formation of one-dimensional ZnO nanorod structure without bundling is essential for high efficiency in PEC response. In this present research work, ZnO nanorod with an average 500 nm in length and average diameter of about 75 nm was successfully formed via electrodeposition method in 0.05 mM ZnCl2 and 0.1 M KCl electrolyte at 1 V for 60 min under 70 °C condition. Continuous efforts have been exerted to further improve the solar driven PEC response by incorporating an optimum content of TiO2 into ZnO nanorod using dip-coating technique. It was found that 0.25 at % of TiO2 loaded on ZnO nanorod film demonstrated a maximum photocurrent density of 19.78 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under UV illumination and 14.75 mA/cm2 (with V vs. Ag/AgCl) under solar illumination with photoconversion efficiency ~2.9% (UV illumination) and ~4.3% (solar illumination). This performance was approximately 3–4 times higher than ZnO film itself. An enhancement of photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency occurred due to the sufficient Ti element within TiO2-ZnO nanorod film, which acted as an effective mediator to trap the photo-induced electrons and minimize the recombination of charge carriers. Besides, phenomenon of charge-separation effect at type-II band alignment of Zn and Ti could further enhance the charge carrier transportation during illumination. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Molecular Weight Cut-Off and Structural Analysis of Vacuum-Assisted Titania Membranes for Water Processing
Materials 2016, 9(11), 938; doi:10.3390/ma9110938
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
This work investigates the structural formation and analyses of titania membranes (TM) prepared using different vacuum exposure times for molecular weight (MW) cut-off performance and oil/water separation. Titania membranes were synthesized via a sol-gel method and coated on macroporous alumina tubes followed by
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This work investigates the structural formation and analyses of titania membranes (TM) prepared using different vacuum exposure times for molecular weight (MW) cut-off performance and oil/water separation. Titania membranes were synthesized via a sol-gel method and coated on macroporous alumina tubes followed by exposure to a vacuum between 30 and 1200 s and then calcined at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses showed that the crystallite size and particle size of titania increased as a function of vacuum time. All the TM membranes were mesoporous with an average pore diameter of ~3.6 nm with an anatase crystal morphology. Water, glucose, sucrose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone with 40 and 360 kDa (PVP-40 kDa and PVP-360 kDa) were used as feed solutions for MW cut-off and hexadecane solution for oil filtration investigation. The TM membranes were not able to separate glucose and sucrose, thus indicating the membrane pore sizes are larger than the kinetic diameter of sucrose of 0.9 nm, irrespective of vacuum exposure time. They also showed only moderate rejection (20%) of the smaller PVP-40 kDa, however, all the membranes were able to obtain an excellent rejection of near 100% for the larger PVP-360 kDa molecule. Furthermore, the TM membranes were tested for the separation of oil emulsions with a high concentration of oil (3000 ppm), reaching high oil rejections of more than 90% of oil. In general, the water fluxes increased with the vacuum exposure time indicating a pore structural tailoring effect. It is therefore proposed that a mechanism of pore size tailoring was formed by an interconnected network of Ti–O–Ti nanoparticles with inter-particle voids, which increased as TiO2 nanoparticle size increased as a function of vacuum exposure time, and thus reduced the water transport resistance through the TM membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Water Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Acoustic Modulation and Mixed Fuel on Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials in an Atmospheric Environment
Materials 2016, 9(11), 939; doi:10.3390/ma9110939
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
In this study, methane–ethylene jet diffusion flames modulated by acoustic excitation in an atmospheric environment were used to investigate the effects of acoustic excitation frequency and mixed fuel on nanomaterial formation. Acoustic output power was maintained at a constant value of 10 W,
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In this study, methane–ethylene jet diffusion flames modulated by acoustic excitation in an atmospheric environment were used to investigate the effects of acoustic excitation frequency and mixed fuel on nanomaterial formation. Acoustic output power was maintained at a constant value of 10 W, while the acoustic excitation frequency was varied (f = 0–90 Hz). The results show that the flame could not be stabilized on the port when the ethylene volume concentration (ΩE) was less than 40% at f = 10 Hz, or when ΩE = 0% (i.e., pure methane) at f = 90 Hz. The reason for this is that the flame had a low intensity and was extinguished by the entrained air due to acoustic modulation. Without acoustic excitation (f = 0 Hz), the flame was comprised of a single-layer structure for all values of ΩE, and almost no carbon nanomaterials were synthesized. However, with acoustic excitation, a double-layer flame structure was generated for frequencies close to both the natural flickering frequency and the acoustically resonant frequency. This double-layer flame structure provided a favorable flame environment for the fabrication of carbon nanomaterials. Consequently, the synthesis of carbon nano-onions was significantly enhanced by acoustic excitation near both the natural flickering frequency and the acoustically resonant frequency. At f = 20 Hz (near the natural flickering frequency) for 0% ≤ ΩE ≤ 100%, a quantity of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) piled like bunches of grapes was obtained as a result of improved mixing of the fuel with ambient air. High-density CNOs were also produced at f = 70 Hz (close to the acoustically resonant frequency) for 40% ≤ ΩE ≤ 100%. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized only at 80 Hz for ΩE = 0%. The suitable temperature range for the synthesis of CNTs was slightly higher than that for the formation of CNOs (about 600 °C for CNTs; 510–600 °C for CNOs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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