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Special Issue "Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. M.H. Ferri Aliabadi

Imperial College London, Kensington, London, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: composite structures; structural health monitoring; computational mechanics; damage detection; residual life assessment
Guest Editor
Dr. Zahra Sharif Khodaei

Imperial College London, Kensington, London, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: piezoelectric transducres for health monitoring; fibre optic sensors for strain monitoring; condition-based maintenance for composites; uncertainty quantification; reliability and risk analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a relatively new and alternative method of Non Destructive Inspection (NDI), which has the potential to significantly improve damage detection in composite aerospace structures. The basis of SHM is the application of permanent sensors (embedded or surface mounted) onto the structure, combined with the necessity of a minimum of manual interventions to monitor the structural integrity. This enables a continuous monitoring of the structure, and thus a detection of a defect at a very early stage; this allows to move away from Planned Maintenance (PM) and towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). This Special Issue will address emerging technologies in SHM, which include piezoelectric transducers, fibre optics sensors and hybrid systems. Papers dealing with passive (impact detection) and active (damage detection) sensing, sensor optimisation, probability of detection, and reliability of the SHM systems are welcome.

Ferri M.H. Aliabadi
Zahra Sharif Khodaei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • ultrasonic guided waves
  • fibre optic sensors
  • piezoelectric transducers
  • sensor optimization
  • probability of detection
  • damage detection and characterization
  • impact detection

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Inspection of Piezoceramic Transducers Used for Structural Health Monitoring
Materials 2017, 10(1), 71; doi:10.3390/ma10010071
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
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Abstract
The use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for structural health monitoring (SHM) purposes is state of the art for acousto-ultrasonic-based methods. For system reliability, detailed information about the PWAS itself is necessary. This paper gives an overview on frequent PWAS faults and
[...] Read more.
The use of piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for structural health monitoring (SHM) purposes is state of the art for acousto-ultrasonic-based methods. For system reliability, detailed information about the PWAS itself is necessary. This paper gives an overview on frequent PWAS faults and presents the effects of these faults on the wave propagation, used for active acousto-ultrasonics-based SHM. The analysis of the wave field is based on velocity measurements using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). New and established methods of PWAS inspection are explained in detail, listing advantages and disadvantages. The electro-mechanical impedance spectrum as basis for these methods is discussed for different sensor faults. This way this contribution focuses on a detailed analysis of PWAS and the need of their inspection for an increased reliability of SHM systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring the Damage State of Fiber Reinforced Composites Using an FBG Network for Failure Prediction
Materials 2017, 10(1), 32; doi:10.3390/ma10010032
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A structural health monitoring (SHM) study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains,
[...] Read more.
A structural health monitoring (SHM) study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture. It is noted that the latter information cannot be obtained using external strain gages, which underlines the importance of the tracking of local strains internally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle A Bayesian Approach for Sensor Optimisation in Impact Identification
Materials 2016, 9(11), 946; doi:10.3390/ma9110946
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a Bayesian approach for optimizing the position of sensors aimed at impact identification in composite structures under operational conditions. The uncertainty in the sensor data has been represented by statistical distributions of the recorded signals. An optimisation strategy based on
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a Bayesian approach for optimizing the position of sensors aimed at impact identification in composite structures under operational conditions. The uncertainty in the sensor data has been represented by statistical distributions of the recorded signals. An optimisation strategy based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to find the best sensor combination aimed at locating impacts on composite structures. A Bayesian-based objective function is adopted in the optimisation procedure as an indicator of the performance of meta-models developed for different sensor combinations to locate various impact events. To represent a real structure under operational load and to increase the reliability of the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system, the probability of malfunctioning sensors is included in the optimisation. The reliability and the robustness of the procedure is tested with experimental and numerical examples. Finally, the proposed optimisation algorithm is applied to a composite stiffened panel for both the uniform and non-uniform probability of impact occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Linear and Nonlinear Guided Wave Imaging of Impact Damage in CFRP Using a Probabilistic Approach
Materials 2016, 9(11), 901; doi:10.3390/ma9110901
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The amount and variety of composite structures that need to be inspected for the presence of impact damage has grown significantly in the last few decades. In this paper, an application of a probabilistic ultrasonic guided wave imaging technique for impact damage detection
[...] Read more.
The amount and variety of composite structures that need to be inspected for the presence of impact damage has grown significantly in the last few decades. In this paper, an application of a probabilistic ultrasonic guided wave imaging technique for impact damage detection in carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) is presented. On the one hand, a linear, baseline-dependent, technique utilizing the well-known correlation-based RAPID method and an array of piezoelectric transducers is applied to detect impact-induced damage in plate-like composite structures. Furthermore, a baseline-independent nonlinear extension of the standard RAPID method is proposed, and its performance is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. Compared to the conventional RAPID, the baseline-free version suffers from a somewhat lower imaging quality. However, this drawback is compensated by the fact that no damage-free (intact) baseline is necessary for successful imaging of damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Health Monitoring Method for Structural Fatigue Life Evaluation Using Limited Sensor Data
Materials 2016, 9(11), 894; doi:10.3390/ma9110894
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general framework for structural fatigue life evaluation under fatigue cyclic loading using limited sensor data is proposed in this paper. First, limited sensor data are measured from various sensors which are preset on the complex structure. Then the strain data at remote
[...] Read more.
A general framework for structural fatigue life evaluation under fatigue cyclic loading using limited sensor data is proposed in this paper. First, limited sensor data are measured from various sensors which are preset on the complex structure. Then the strain data at remote spots are used to obtain the strain responses at critical spots by the strain/stress reconstruction method based on empirical mode decomposition (REMD method). All the computations in this paper are directly performed in the time domain. After the local stress responses at critical spots are determined, fatigue life evaluation can be performed for structural health management and risk assessment. Fatigue life evaluation using the reconstructed stresses from remote strain gauge measurement data is also demonstrated with detailed error analysis. Following this, the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a three-dimensional frame structure and a simplified airfoil structure. Finally, several conclusions and future work are drawn based on the proposed study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Level Decision Fusion Strategy for Condition Based Maintenance of Composite Structures
Materials 2016, 9(9), 790; doi:10.3390/ma9090790
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance
[...] Read more.
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance of the SHM systems is evaluated against its intended functions. Level 1 diagnosis results in damage existence with minimum sensors covering a large area by finding the maximum energy difference for the guided waves propagating in pristine structure and the post-impact state; Level 2 diagnosis provides damage detection and approximate localization using an approach based on Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measures, while Level 3 characterizes damage (exact location and size) in addition to its detection by utilising a Weighted Energy Arrival Method (WEAM). The proposed multi-level strategy is verified and validated experimentally by detection of Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) on a curved composite fuselage panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Poisson’s Ratio Degradation of FRP Composites under Fatigue Loading Using Biaxially Embedded FBG Sensors
Materials 2016, 9(9), 781; doi:10.3390/ma9090781
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to
[...] Read more.
The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to obtain strain data. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have many advantages for strain measurement over conventional ones. Thus, the present paper suggests a novel method for biaxial strain measurement using embedded FBG sensors during the fatigue testing of FRP composites. Poisson’s ratio and its reduction were monitored for each cyclic loading by using embedded FBG sensors for a given specimen and correlated with the fatigue stages determined based on the variations of the applied fatigue loading and temperature due to the autogenous heating to predict an oncoming failure of the continuous fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composite specimens under fatigue loading. The results show that FBG sensor technology has a remarkable potential for monitoring the evolution of Poisson’s ratio on a cycle-by-cycle basis, which can reliably be used towards tracking the fatigue stages of composite for structural health monitoring purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Guided Wave Based Crack Detection in the Rivet Hole Using Global Analytical with Local FEM Approach
Materials 2016, 9(7), 602; doi:10.3390/ma9070602
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (6489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with the rivet hole cracks has been formulated using closed-form analytical solution while the local damage interaction, scattering, and mode conversion have been obtained from finite element analysis. The rivet hole cracks (damage) in
[...] Read more.
In this article, ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with the rivet hole cracks has been formulated using closed-form analytical solution while the local damage interaction, scattering, and mode conversion have been obtained from finite element analysis. The rivet hole cracks (damage) in the plate structure gives rise to the non-axisymmetric scattering of Lamb wave, as well as shear horizontal (SH) wave, although the incident Lamb wave source (primary source) is axisymmetric. The damage in the plate acts as a non-axisymmetric secondary source of Lamb wave and SH wave. The scattering of Lamb and SH waves are captured using wave damage interaction coefficient (WDIC). The scatter cubes of complex-valued WDIC are formed that can describe the 3D interaction (frequency, incident direction, and azimuth direction) of Lamb waves with the damage. The scatter cubes are fed into the exact analytical framework to produce the time domain signal. This analysis enables us to obtain the optimum design parameters for better detection of the cracks in a multiple-rivet-hole problem. The optimum parameters provide the guideline of the design of the sensor installation to obtain the most noticeable signals that represent the presence of cracks in the rivet hole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
Open AccessArticle Fatigue Damage Monitoring of a Composite Step Lap Joint Using Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors
Materials 2016, 9(5), 374; doi:10.3390/ma9050374
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 14 May 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as
[...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, there has been a considerable interest in the use of distributed optical fibre sensors (DOFS) for structural health monitoring of composite structures. In aerospace-related work, health monitoring of the adhesive joints of composites has become more significant, as they can suffer from cracking and delamination, which can have a significant impact on the integrity of the joint. In this paper, a swept-wavelength interferometry (SWI) based DOFS technique is used to monitor the fatigue in a flush step lap joint composite structure. The presented results will show the potential application of distributed optical fibre sensor for damage detection, as well as monitoring the fatigue crack growth along the bondline of a step lap joint composite structure. The results confirmed that a distributed optical fibre sensor is able to enhance the detection of localised damage in a structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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