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Materials, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cultured on ultra-short pulsed laser deposited TiO2-based [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle A Model of BGA Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Sequence Effects
Materials 2016, 9(10), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100860
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
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Abstract
Accurate testing history data is necessary for all fatigue life prediction approaches, but such data is always deficient especially for the microelectronic devices. Additionally, the sequence of the individual load cycle plays an important role in physical fatigue damage. However, most of the
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Accurate testing history data is necessary for all fatigue life prediction approaches, but such data is always deficient especially for the microelectronic devices. Additionally, the sequence of the individual load cycle plays an important role in physical fatigue damage. However, most of the existing models based on the linear damage accumulation rule ignore the sequence effects. This paper proposes a thermal fatigue life prediction model for ball grid array (BGA) packages to take into consideration the load sequence effects. For the purpose of improving the availability and accessibility of testing data, a new failure criterion is discussed and verified by simulation and experimentation. The consequences for the fatigue underlying sequence load conditions are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle An In-Depth Investigation into the Physicochemical, Thermal, Microstructural, and Rheological Properties of Petroleum and Natural Asphalts
Materials 2016, 9(10), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100859
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
Over the last decade, unexpected and sudden pavement failures have occurred in several provinces in South Korea. Some of these failures remain unexplained, further illustrating the gaps in our knowledge about binder chemistry. To prevent premature pavement distress and enhance road performance, it
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Over the last decade, unexpected and sudden pavement failures have occurred in several provinces in South Korea. Some of these failures remain unexplained, further illustrating the gaps in our knowledge about binder chemistry. To prevent premature pavement distress and enhance road performance, it is imperative to provide an adequate characterization of asphalt. For this purpose, the current research aims at inspecting the chemistry, microstructure, thermal, and physico-rheological properties of two types of asphalt, namely petroleum asphalt (PA) and natural asphalt (NA). The binders were extensively investigated by using elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), penetration, softening point, ductility, and viscosity tests. The findings of this research have revealed the distinct variations between the chemical compositions, microstructures, and thermo-rheological properties of the two asphalts and provided valuable knowledge into the characteristics of the binders. Such insight has been effective in predicting the performance or distress of road pavement. This paper will, therefore, be of immediate interest to materials engineers in state highway agencies and asphalt industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessReview Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes
Materials 2016, 9(10), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100858
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (7768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface
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Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic), and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS) with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Materials for Solid Oxide Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Gold Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric and Electrochemical Methods for Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Activity Assay and Inhibitor Screening
Materials 2016, 9(10), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100857
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We presented the colorimetric and electrochemical methods for determination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity and screening of its inhibitor using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the probe. In the colorimetric assay, the substrate peptide with a sequence of Arg-Pro-Arg induced the aggregation and
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We presented the colorimetric and electrochemical methods for determination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity and screening of its inhibitor using gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the probe. In the colorimetric assay, the substrate peptide with a sequence of Arg-Pro-Arg induced the aggregation and color change of AuNPs, whereas cleavage of the peptide by DPP-IV prevented the aggregation of AuNPs. Furthermore, the aggregation of AuNPs in the solution was easily initiated on a solid/liquid (electrode/electrolyte) surface, which induced a decrease in the electron-transfer resistance. However, once the peptide was clipped by DPP-IV, the assembly of AuNPs on electrode surface was prevented. Consequently, a higher electron-transfer resistance was observed. The colorimetric and electrochemical assays allowed for the determination of DPP-IV with the detection limits of 70 μU/mL and 0.55 μU/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the proposed methods were used to determine DPP-IV inhibitor with satisfactory results. Both the colorimetric and electrochemical methods are simple, rapid and sufficiently sensitive for DPP-IV activity assay and inhibitor screening. The results also demonstrated that the AuNP-based colorimetric assay could be converted into an enhanced surface tethered electrochemical assay with improving sensitivity. The simple detection principle may be extended to the design of other peptidases biosensors with easy manipulation procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Tribological Performance of Green Lubricant Enhanced by Sulfidation IF-MoS2
Materials 2016, 9(10), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100856
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biopolymers reinforced with nanoparticle (NP) additives are widely used in tribological applications. In this study, the effect of NP additives on the tribological properties of a green lubricant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) composite was investigated. The IF-MoS2 NPs were prepared using the newly
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Biopolymers reinforced with nanoparticle (NP) additives are widely used in tribological applications. In this study, the effect of NP additives on the tribological properties of a green lubricant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) composite was investigated. The IF-MoS2 NPs were prepared using the newly developed gas phase sulfidation method to form a multilayered, polyhedral structure. The number of layers and crystallinity of IF-MoS2 increased with sulfidation time and temperature. The dispersity of NPs in the HPMC was investigated using Raman and EDS mapping and showed great uniformity. The use of NPs with HPMC enhanced the tribological performance of the composites as expected. The analysis of the worn surface shows that the friction behavior of the HPMC composite with added NPs is very sensitive to the NP structure. The wear mechanisms vary with NP structure and depend on their lubricating behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IMETI2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum
Materials 2016, 9(10), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100855
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum) were optimized
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CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum) were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Synthetic Organic–Inorganic Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Based Thermo-Responsive Hydrogels for Cell Sheet Engineering
Materials 2016, 9(10), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100854
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
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Abstract
The swelling properties and thermal transition of hydrogels can be tailored by changing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of polymer networks. Especially, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) has received attention as thermo-responsive hydrogels for tissue engineering because its hydrophobicity and swelling property are transited around body
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The swelling properties and thermal transition of hydrogels can be tailored by changing the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of polymer networks. Especially, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) has received attention as thermo-responsive hydrogels for tissue engineering because its hydrophobicity and swelling property are transited around body temperature (32 °C). In this study, we investigated the potential of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as a hydrophilic co-monomer and crosslinker of PNIPAm to enhance biological properties of PNIPAm hydrogels. The swelling ratios, lower critical solution temperature (LCST), and internal pore structure of the synthesized p(NIPAm-co-PEGDA) hydrogels could be varied with changes in the molecular weight of PEGDA and the co-monomer ratios (NIPAm to PEGDA). We found that increasing the molecular weight of PEGDA showed an increase of pore sizes and swelling ratios of the hydrogels. In contrast, increasing the weight ratio of PEGDA under the same molecular weight condition increased the crosslinking density and decreased the swelling ratios of the hydrogels. Further, to evaluate the potential of these hydrogels as cell sheets, we seeded bovine chondrocytes on the p(NIPAm-co-PEGDA) hydrogels and observed the proliferation of the seed cells and their detachment as a cell sheet upon a decrease in temperature. Based on our results, we confirmed that p(NIPAm-co-PEGDA) hydrogels could be utilized as cell sheets with enhanced cell proliferation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials and Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessArticle Porous Alpha-Tricalcium Phosphate with Immobilized Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Enhances Bone Regeneration in a Canine Mandibular Bone Defect Model
Materials 2016, 9(10), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100853
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
The effect of porous alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) with immobilized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on bone regeneration was evaluated in a canine mandibular bone defect model. Identical bone defects were made in the canine mandible; six defects in each animal were filled with
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The effect of porous alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) with immobilized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on bone regeneration was evaluated in a canine mandibular bone defect model. Identical bone defects were made in the canine mandible; six defects in each animal were filled with porous α-TCP with bFGF bound via heparin (bFGF group), whereas the other was filled with unmodified porous α-TCP (control group). Micro-computed tomography and histological evaluation were performed two, four and eight weeks after implantation. The bone mineral density of the bFGF group was higher than that of the control group at each time point (p < 0.05), and the bone mineral content of the bFGF group was higher than that of the control group at four and eight weeks (p < 0.05). Histological evaluation two weeks after implantation revealed that the porous α-TCP had degraded and bone had formed on the surface of α-TCP particles in the bFGF group. At eight weeks, continuous cortical bone with a Haversian structure covered the top of bone defects in the bFGF group. These findings demonstrate that porous α-TCP with immobilized bFGF can promote bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle A Fracture Analysis of Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5Al Alloy Screws during Assembly
Materials 2016, 9(10), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100852
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 16 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
Titanium screws have properties that make them ideal for applications that require both a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, such as fastener applications for aviation and aerospace. The fracture behavior of Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5Al (TB3) alloy screws during assembly was explored. Besides visual examination,
[...] Read more.
Titanium screws have properties that make them ideal for applications that require both a high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, such as fastener applications for aviation and aerospace. The fracture behavior of Ti-10Mo-8V-1Fe-3.5Al (TB3) alloy screws during assembly was explored. Besides visual examination, other experimental techniques used for the investigation are as follows: (1) fracture characteristics and damage morphology via scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (2) chemical constituents via energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and hydrogen concentration testing; (3) metallographic observation; (4) stress durability embrittlement testing; and (5) torsion simulation testing. Results show that the fracture mode of the screws is brittle. There is no obvious relation to hydrogen-induced brittle. The main reason for the fracture of titanium alloy screws is internal defects, around which oxygen content is high, increasing brittleness. The internal defects of screws result from grain boundary cracking caused by hot forging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Morphological Influence of Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films on Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Transistors
Materials 2016, 9(10), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100851
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 12 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using
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We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs). Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and Hall measurement. It is shown that ZnO TFTs have a superior performance in terms of the threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, when ZnO crystallites are more densely packed in the film. This is attributed to lower electrical resistivity and higher Hall mobility in a densely packed ZnO film. In the results of consecutive TFT operations, a positive shift in the threshold voltage occurred irrespective of the film morphology, but the morphological influence on the variation in the field-effect mobility was evident. The field-effect mobility in TFTs having a densely packed ZnO film increased continuously during consecutive TFT operations, which is in contrast to the mobility decrease observed in the less packed case. An analysis of the field-effect conductivities ascribes these results to the difference in energetic traps, which originate from structural defects in the ZnO films. Consequently, the morphological influence of solution-processed ZnO films on the TFT performance can be understood through the packing property of ZnO crystallites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor)
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Open AccessArticle Flexural Capability of Patterned Transparent Conductive Substrate by Performing Electrical Measurements and Stress Simulations
Materials 2016, 9(10), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100850
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation
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The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium–tin–oxide (ITO) films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays. However, the pattern effect is rarely investigated to estimate the mechanical reliability of ITO/PET films. Thus, this study examined the flexible content of patterned ITO/PET films with two different line widths by conducting bending tests and sheet resistance measurements. Moreover, a stress–strain simulation enabled by finite element analysis was performed on the patterned ITO/PET to explore the stress impact of stacked film structures under various levels of flexural load. Results show that the design of the ITO/PET film can be applied in developing mechanically reliable flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bendable and Soft Material Film)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped Porous TiO2 Hollow Spheres and Their Photocatalytic and Optical Properties
Materials 2016, 9(10), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100849
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (7297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three kinds of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres with different N-doping contents, surface area, and pore size distributions were prepared based on a sol–gel synthesis and combined with a calcination process. Melamine formaldehyde (MF) microspheres have been used as sacrificial template and
[...] Read more.
Three kinds of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres with different N-doping contents, surface area, and pore size distributions were prepared based on a sol–gel synthesis and combined with a calcination process. Melamine formaldehyde (MF) microspheres have been used as sacrificial template and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was selected as pore-directing agent. Core–shell intermediate spheres of titania-coated MF with diameters of 1.2–1.6 μm were fabricated by varying the volume concentration of TiO2 precursor from 1 to 3 vol %. By calcining the core–shell composite spheres at 500 °C for 3 h in air, an in situ N-doping process occurred upon the decomposition of the MF template and CTAB or PVP pore-directing surfactant. N-doped mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres with sizes in the range of 0.4–1.2 μm and shell thickness from 40 to 110 nm were obtained. The composition and N-doping content, thermal stability, morphology, surface area and pore size distribution, wall thickness, photocatalytic activities, and optical properties of the mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres derived from different conditions were investigated and compared based on Fourier-transformation infrared (FTIR), SEM, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, and UV–vis spectrophotoscopy techniques. The influences of particle size, N-doping, porous, and hollow characteristics of the TiO2 hollow spheres on their photocatalytic activities and optical properties have been studied and discussed based on the composition analysis, structure characterization, and optical property investigation of these hollow spherical TiO2 matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Materials for Water Technology)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Nanohybrid Nanofibrous Adsorbent for Water Purification from Dye Pollutants
Materials 2016, 9(10), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100848
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated
[...] Read more.
In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated surface area for adsorption of cationic MB molecules. As an extra challenge, to augment the adsorbent’s properties in terms of adsorption capacity in neutral and acidic conditions and thermal stability, vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoparticles were added to the nanofibers. Adsorption data were analyzed according to the Freundlich adsorption model. The thermodynamic parameters verified that only at basic pH is the adsorption spontaneous and in general the process is entropy-driven and endothermic. The kinetics of the adsorption process was evaluated by the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models. The latter model exhibited the highest correlation with data. In sum, the adsorbent showed a promising potential for dye removal from industrial dyeing wastewater systems, especially when envisaging their alkaline and hot conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface Densification on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgical Gears by Using a Surface Rolling Process
Materials 2016, 9(10), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100846
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Powder metallurgy (PM) components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to
[...] Read more.
Powder metallurgy (PM) components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to lower strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties compared to wrought components due to the existence of massive pores in the PM components. In this study, through combining the powder metallurgy process and rolling process, the pores in the PM components were decreased and a homogenous densified layer was formed on the surface, which resulted in the enhancement of the strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties, which can expand its range of application. In this paper, we study the impact of different rolling feeds on the performance of the components’ surfaces. We found that with the increase of the rolling feed, the depth of the densified layer increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Comparisons of Damage Evolution between 2D C/SiC and SiC/SiC Ceramic-Matrix Composites under Tension-Tension Cyclic Fatigue Loading at Room and Elevated Temperatures
Materials 2016, 9(10), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9100844
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, comparisons of damage evolution between 2D C/SiC and SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) under tension–tension cyclic fatigue loading at room and elevated temperatures have been investigated. Fatigue hysteresis loops models considering multiple matrix cracking modes in 2D CMCs have been developed
[...] Read more.
In this paper, comparisons of damage evolution between 2D C/SiC and SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) under tension–tension cyclic fatigue loading at room and elevated temperatures have been investigated. Fatigue hysteresis loops models considering multiple matrix cracking modes in 2D CMCs have been developed based on the damage mechanism of fiber sliding relative to the matrix in the interface debonded region. The relationships between the fatigue hysteresis loops, fatigue hysteresis dissipated energy, fatigue peak stress, matrix multiple cracking modes, and interface shear stress have been established. The effects of fiber volume fraction, fatigue peak stress and matrix cracking mode proportion on fatigue hysteresis dissipated energy and interface debonding and sliding have been analyzed. The experimental fatigue hysteresis dissipated energy of 2D C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites at room temperature, 550 °C, 800 °C, and 1100 °C in air, and 1200 °C in vacuum corresponding to different fatigue peak stresses and cycle numbers have been analyzed. The interface shear stress degradation rate has been obtained through comparing the experimental fatigue hysteresis dissipated energy with theoretical values. Fatigue damage evolution in C/SiC and SiC/SiC composites has been compared using damage parameters of fatigue hysteresis dissipated energy and interface shear stress degradation rate. It was found that the interface shear stress degradation rate increases at elevated temperature in air compared with that at room temperature, decreases with increasing loading frequency at room temperature, and increases with increasing fatigue peak stress at room and elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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