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Materials 2016, 9(11), 941; doi:10.3390/ma9110941

Numerical Approach to Modeling and Characterization of Refractive Index Changes for a Long-Period Fiber Grating Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dirk Lehmhus
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafast Laser-Based Manufacturing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6070 KB, uploaded 21 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

A 3D finite element model constructed to predict the intensity-dependent refractive index profile induced by femtosecond laser radiation is presented. A fiber core irradiated by a pulsed laser is modeled as a cylinder subject to predefined boundary conditions using COMSOL5.2 Multiphysics commercial package. The numerically obtained refractive index change is used to numerically design and experimentally fabricate long-period fiber grating (LPFG) in pure silica core single-mode fiber employing identical laser conditions. To reduce the high computational requirements, the beam envelope method approach is utilized in the aforementioned numerical models. The number of periods, grating length, and grating period considered in this work are numerically quantified. The numerically obtained spectral growth of the modeled LPFG seems to be consistent with the transmission of the experimentally fabricated LPFG single mode fiber. The sensing capabilities of the modeled LPFG are tested by varying the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The numerically obtained spectrum corresponding to the varied refractive index shows good agreement with the experimental findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: refractive index; Gaussian beam; femtosecond laser; LPFG model; beam envelop; grating period; grating length; index sensor refractive index; Gaussian beam; femtosecond laser; LPFG model; beam envelop; grating period; grating length; index sensor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Saad, A.; Cho, Y.; Ahmed, F.; Jun, M.B.-G. Numerical Approach to Modeling and Characterization of Refractive Index Changes for a Long-Period Fiber Grating Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser. Materials 2016, 9, 941.

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