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Special Issue "Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Regine Willumeit-Römer

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geestacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung, Max-Planck-Str.1, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biodegradable Mg implants; permantent Ti-based implant materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wolf-Dieter Mueller

Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, CC3 Assmannshauser Str. 4-6, D-14197 Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biodegradable Mg implants; electrochemical assessment of metallic biomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, biodegradable metals have advanced significantly towards being used in applications. In particular, biodegradable magnesium-based implant materials have already reached the market. Still, a lot of unanswered questions are waiting to be tackled and there is a long way to go before magnesium-based implants become a routine option in the operation theatre.

In this special issue, we compile expert knowledge at the forefront of research by spanning the whole process from material design and characterization to pre-clinical studies. As an overview, the students of the European research training network, MagnIM, will summarize the state of the art and different aspects which should be unified to expedite progress in the development of biodegradable magnesium implants. The following subsections will address specific developments starting with various alloys and processing routes, electrochemical studies and useful surface properties or coatings. How the gap between in vitro studies and in vivo observations can be bridged, will be a second important subsection.

This special issue also hopes to bring together the various disciplines necessary for the development of such a challenging issue as degradable implants. Without a common language and common approaches as a basis for discussion, progress in this important field will be too slow to meet the expectations/needs of society and future generations.

Prof. Dr. Regine Willumeit-Römer
Prof. Dr. Wolf-Dieter Müller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Magnesium-based implant materials
  • corrosion
  • cell culture
  • foreign body reaction

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Microhardness and In Vitro Corrosion of Heat-Treated Mg–Y–Ag Biodegradable Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(1), 55; doi:10.3390/ma10010055
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 19 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (25583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium alloys are promising candidates for biodegradable medical implants which reduce the necessity of second surgery to remove the implants. Yttrium in solid solution is an attractive alloying element because it improves mechanical properties and exhibits suitable corrosion properties. Silver was shown to
[...] Read more.
Magnesium alloys are promising candidates for biodegradable medical implants which reduce the necessity of second surgery to remove the implants. Yttrium in solid solution is an attractive alloying element because it improves mechanical properties and exhibits suitable corrosion properties. Silver was shown to have an antibacterial effect and can also enhance the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. Measurements of microhardness and electrical resistivity were used to study the response of Mg–4Y and Mg–4Y–1Ag alloys to isochronal or isothermal heat treatments. Hardening response and electrical resistivity annealing curves in these alloys were compared in order to investigate the effect of silver addition. Procedures for solid solution annealing and artificial aging of the Mg–4Y–1Ag alloy were developed. The corrosion rate of the as-cast and heat-treated Mg–4Y–1Ag alloy was measured by the mass loss method. It was found out that solid solution heat treatment, as well artificial aging to peak hardness, lead to substantial improvement in the corrosion properties of the Mg–4Y–1Ag alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Electrochemical Methods for the Evaluation of Cast AZ91 Magnesium Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 925; doi:10.3390/ma9110925
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a
[...] Read more.
Linear polarization is a potentiodynamic method used for electrochemical characterization of materials. Obtained values of corrosion potential and corrosion current density offer information about material behavior in corrosion environments from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, respectively. The present study offers a comparison of applications of the linear polarization method (from −100 mV to +200 mV vs. EOCP), the cathodic polarization of the specimen (−100 mV vs. EOCP), and the anodic polarization of the specimen (+100 mV vs. EOCP), and a discussion of the differences in the obtained values of the electrochemical characteristics of cast AZ91 magnesium alloy. The corrosion current density obtained by cathodic polarization was similar to the corrosion current density obtained by linear polarization, while a lower value was obtained by anodic polarization. Signs of corrosion attack were observed only in the case of linear polarization including cathodic and anodic polarization of the specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Processing Techniques on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Biodegradable Mg-3Zn-2Ca Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(11), 880; doi:10.3390/ma9110880
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing
[...] Read more.
New Mg-3Zn-2Ca magnesium alloy was prepared using different processing techniques: gravity casting as well as squeeze casting in liquid and semisolid states. Materials were further thermally treated; thermal treatment of the gravity cast alloy was additionally combined with the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). Alloy processed by the squeeze casting in liquid as well as in semisolid state exhibit improved plasticity; the ECAP processing positively influenced both the tensile and compressive characteristics of the alloy. Applied heat treatment influenced the distribution and chemical composition of present intermetallic phases. Influence of particular processing techniques, heat treatment, and intermetallic phase distribution is thoroughly discussed in relation to mechanical behavior of presented alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle µXRF Elemental Mapping of Bioresorbable Magnesium-Based Implants in Bone
Materials 2016, 9(10), 811; doi:10.3390/ma9100811
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
PDF Full-text (5991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the distribution of the elemental constituents of Mg-based implants at various stages of the degradation process in surrounding bone tissue, with a focus on magnesium (Mg), as the main component of the alloy, and yttrium (Y), due to its potential
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the distribution of the elemental constituents of Mg-based implants at various stages of the degradation process in surrounding bone tissue, with a focus on magnesium (Mg), as the main component of the alloy, and yttrium (Y), due to its potential adverse health effects. The measurements were performed on the implant-bearing thin sections of rat bone in a time series of implant degradation between one and 18 months. Micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (μXRF) with a special spectrometer meeting the requirements for the measurements of low-Z elements was used. It was found that the migration and accumulation behaviour of implant degradation products is element-specific. A sharp decrease in Mg was observed in the immediate vicinity of the interface and no specific accumulation or aggregation of Mg in the adjacent bone tissue was detected. By contrast, Y was found to migrate further into the bone over time and to remain in the tissue even after the complete degradation of the implant. Although the nature of Y accumulations must still be clarified, its potential health impact should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions
Materials 2016, 9(8), 627; doi:10.3390/ma9080627
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion
[...] Read more.
The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy’s degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle The Enhancement of Mg Corrosion Resistance by Alloying Mn and Laser-Melting
Materials 2016, 9(4), 216; doi:10.3390/ma9040216
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 5 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mg has been considered a promising biomaterial for bone implants. However, the poor corrosion resistance has become its main undesirable property. In this study, both alloying Mn and laser-melting were applied to enhance the Mg corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and
[...] Read more.
Mg has been considered a promising biomaterial for bone implants. However, the poor corrosion resistance has become its main undesirable property. In this study, both alloying Mn and laser-melting were applied to enhance the Mg corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and microstructure of rapid laser-melted Mg-xMn (x = 0–3 wt %) alloys were investigated. The alloys were composed of dendrite grains, and the grains size decreased with increasing Mn. Moreover, Mn could dissolve and induce the crystal lattice distortion of the Mg matrix during the solidification process. Mn ranging from 0–2 wt % dissolved completely due to rapid laser solidification. As Mn contents further increased up to 3 wt %, a small amount of Mn was left undissolved. The compressive strength of Mg-Mn alloys increased first (up to 2 wt %) and then decreased with increasing Mn, while the hardness increased continuously. The refinement of grains and the increase in corrosion potential both made contributions to the enhancement of Mg corrosion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Alloys)
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