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Special Issue "Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Ming Hu

Institute of Mineral Engineering, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Georesources and Materials Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52064, Germany
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal sciences and thermodynamics of materials are of immense interest amongst researchers, not only in appealing and fundamental studies on the physics of transport processes in general, but also in their enormous practical implications. Traditionally popular research activities in this area focus on heat and mass transfer of substances at the continuum level, refrigeration and air conditioning, fluid flows with thermal changes, combustion, thermal effects on materials and manufacturing, renewable energy, environmental thermodynamics, etc. In recent decades, as the size of devices and structures have continuously decreased, the thermal conditions have become more aggressive. Representative cases include solid-state energy conversion systems, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoelectronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies. All of these emerging technologies and the related revolutions demand a deep understanding and robust manipulation and/or control of thermal transport and thermodynamic properties of materials at different length scales, and, in particular, at small scales.

The objective of this Special Issue is to address the important scientific problems centered on thermal transport and thermodynamics, crossing all length scales. We also encourage researchers to review the progress and improvement that has been made in the past few decades for advancing our fundamental understanding of thermal sciences and thermodynamics, along with the significant development of relevant experimental instruments and tools.

It is my pleasure to invite contributions from researchers, academicians and practitioners from industries and research establishments to submit manuscripts for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome. The topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Heat and mass transfer crossing all length scales, such as micro-/nano-scale heat transfer, phononics
  • Development of numerical methods / computational schemes for thermal sciences
  • Experimental techniques and instrumentation in thermal sciences and thermodynamics
  • Energy conversion systems and clean energy technology, such as thermoelectrics, energy storage
  • Renewable energy systems and technologies
  • Environmental and industrial thermodynamics

Prof. Ming Hu
Guest Editor

 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Thermal transport and thermodynamics
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thermal resistance
  • Thermal management
  • Phonons
  • Energy systems

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Packaging Reliability Effect of ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes in Board Level Thermal Test under Long-Term Aging and Cycling
Materials 2017, 10(5), 451; doi:10.3390/ma10050451
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
PDF Full-text (5792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on
[...] Read more.
This study illustrates test results and comparative literature data on the influence of isothermal aging and thermal cycling associated with Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) ball grid array (BGA) solder joints finished with ENIG and ENEPIG on the board side and ENIG on the package side compared with ImAg plating on both sides. The resulting degradation data suggests that the main concern for 0.4 mm pitch 10 mm package size BGA is package side surface finish, not board side. That is, ENIG performs better than immersion Ag for applications involving long-term isothermal aging. SAC305, with a higher relative fraction of Ag3Sn IMC within the solder, performs better than SAC105. SEM and polarized light microscope analysis show cracks propagated from the corners to the center or even to solder bulk, which eventually causes fatigue failure. Three factors are discussed: IMC, grain structure, and Ag3Sn particle. The continuous growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) and grains increase the risk of failure, while Ag3Sn particles seem helpful in blocking the crack propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Developed Testing System for Determining the Temperature Behavior of Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(4), 419; doi:10.3390/ma10040419
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 9 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 16 April 2017
PDF Full-text (6943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cracking due to temperature and restraint in mass concrete is an important issue. A temperature stress testing machine (TSTM) is an effective test method to study the mechanism of temperature cracking. A synchronous closed loop federated control TSTM system has been developed by
[...] Read more.
Cracking due to temperature and restraint in mass concrete is an important issue. A temperature stress testing machine (TSTM) is an effective test method to study the mechanism of temperature cracking. A synchronous closed loop federated control TSTM system has been developed by adopting the design concepts of a closed loop federated control, a detachable mold design, a direct measuring deformation method, and a temperature deformation compensation method. The results show that the self-developed system has the comprehensive ability of simulating different restraint degrees, multiple temperature and humidity modes, and closed-loop control of multi-TSTMs during one test period. Additionally, the direct measuring deformation method can obtain a more accurate deformation and restraint degree result with little local damage. The external temperature deformation affecting the concrete specimen can be eliminated by adopting the temperature deformation compensation method with different considerations of steel materials. The concrete quality of different TSTMs can be guaranteed by being vibrated on the vibrating stand synchronously. The detachable mold design and assembled method has greatly overcome the difficulty of eccentric force and deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Practical Approach to Evaluate Lattice Thermal Conductivity in Two-Phase Thermoelectric Alloys for Energy Applications
Materials 2017, 10(4), 386; doi:10.3390/ma10040386
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modelling of the effects of materials’ microstructure on thermal transport is an essential tool for materials design, and is particularly relevant for thermoelectric (TE) materials converting heat into electrical energy. Precipitates dispersed in a TE matrix act as phonon-scattering centers, thereby reducing thermal
[...] Read more.
Modelling of the effects of materials’ microstructure on thermal transport is an essential tool for materials design, and is particularly relevant for thermoelectric (TE) materials converting heat into electrical energy. Precipitates dispersed in a TE matrix act as phonon-scattering centers, thereby reducing thermal conductivity. We introduce a practical approach to tailor a definite precipitate size distribution for a given TE matrix, and implement it for PbTe. We evaluate vibrational properties from first principles, and develop an expression for phonon relaxation time that considers both matrix vibrational properties and precipitate size distribution. This provides us with guidelines for optimizing thermal conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Heat-Treated Wood Particles on the Physico-Mechanical Properties and Extended Creep Behavior of Wood/Recycled-HDPE Composites Using the Time–Temperature Superposition Principle
Materials 2017, 10(4), 365; doi:10.3390/ma10040365
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the effectiveness of heat-treated wood particles for improving the physico-mechanical properties and creep performance of wood/recycled-HDPE composites. The results reveal that the composites with heat-treated wood particles had significantly decreased moisture content, water absorption, and thickness swelling, while no improvements of the flexural properties or the wood screw holding strength were observed, except for the internal bond strength. Additionally, creep tests were conducted at a series of elevated temperatures using the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP), and the TTSP-predicted creep compliance curves fit well with the experimental data. The creep resistance values of composites with heat-treated wood particles were greater than those having untreated wood particles due to the hydrophobic character of the treated wood particles and improved interfacial compatibility between the wood particles and polymer matrix. At a reference temperature of 20 °C, the improvement of creep resistance (ICR) of composites with heat-treated wood particles reached approximately 30% over a 30-year period, and it increased significantly with increasing reference temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Molecular Dynamics of Multiarm Star Polymers with a Poly(ethyleneimine) Core and Poly(lactide) Multiarms
Materials 2017, 10(2), 127; doi:10.3390/ma10020127
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiarm star polymers, denoted PEIx-PLAy and containing a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) core of different molecular weights x and poly(lactide) (PLA) arms with y ratio of lactide repeat units to N links were used in this work. Samples were preconditioned to
[...] Read more.
Multiarm star polymers, denoted PEIx-PLAy and containing a hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) core of different molecular weights x and poly(lactide) (PLA) arms with y ratio of lactide repeat units to N links were used in this work. Samples were preconditioned to remove the moisture content and then characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). The glass transition temperature, Tg, is between 48 and 50 °C for all the PEIx-PLAy samples. The dielectric curves show four dipolar relaxations: γ, β, α, and α′ in order of increasing temperature. The temperatures at which these relaxations appear, together with their dependence on the frequency, allows relaxation maps to be drawn, from which the activation energies of the sub-Tg γ- and β-relaxations and the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann parameters of the α-relaxation glass transition are obtained. The dependence of the characteristic features of these relaxations on the molecular weight of the PEI core and on the ratio of lactide repeat units to N links permits the assignation of molecular motions to each relaxation. The γ-relaxation is associated with local motions of the –OH groups of the poly(lactide) chains, the β-relaxation with motions of the main chain of poly(lactide), the α-relaxation with global motions of the complete assembly of PEI core and PLA arms, and the α′-relaxation is related to the normal mode relaxation due to fluctuations of the end-to-end vector in the PLA arms, without excluding the possibility that it could be a Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars type ionic peak because the material may have nano-regions of different conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Model Stirrer Based on a Multi-Material Turntable for Microwave Processing Materials
Materials 2017, 10(2), 95; doi:10.3390/ma10020095
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microwaves have been widely used in the treatment of materials, such as heating, drying, and sterilization. However, the heating in the commonly used microwave applicators is usually uneven. In this paper, a novel multi-material turntable structure is creatively proposed to improve the temperature
[...] Read more.
Microwaves have been widely used in the treatment of materials, such as heating, drying, and sterilization. However, the heating in the commonly used microwave applicators is usually uneven. In this paper, a novel multi-material turntable structure is creatively proposed to improve the temperature uniformity in microwave ovens. Three customized turntables consisting of polyethylene (PE) and alumina, PE and aluminum, and alumina and aluminum are, respectively, utilized in a domestic microwave oven in simulation. During the heating process, the processed material is placed on a fixed Teflon bracket which covers the constantly rotating turntable. Experiments are conducted to measure the surface and point temperatures using an infrared thermal imaging camera and optical fibers. Simulated results are compared qualitatively with the measured ones, which verifies the simulated models. Compared with the turntables consisting of a single material, a 26%–47% increase in temperature uniformity from adapting the multi-material turntable can be observed for the microwave-processed materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Properties of the Mixed n-Octadecane/Cu Nanoparticle Nanofluids during Phase Transition: A Molecular Dynamics Study
Materials 2017, 10(1), 38; doi:10.3390/ma10010038
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paraffin based nanofluids are widely used as thermal energy storage materials and hold many applications in the energy industry. In this work, equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the thermal properties of the mixed nanofluids of n-octadecane and
[...] Read more.
Paraffin based nanofluids are widely used as thermal energy storage materials and hold many applications in the energy industry. In this work, equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study the thermal properties of the mixed nanofluids of n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles during phase transition. Four different nanofluids systems with different mass ratios between the n-octadecane and Cu nanoparticles have been studied and the results show that Cu nanoparticles can improve the thermal properties of n-octadecane. The melting point, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the mixed systems are decreased with the increasing of the mass ratio of n-octadecane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Non-Steady State Growth of Pearlite outside the Hultgren Extrapolation
Materials 2016, 9(12), 998; doi:10.3390/ma9120998
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
PDF Full-text (2475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of adding Al on the non-steady pearlite growth occurring in a Fe–C–Mn system. The results are discussed in terms of the partitioning of elements across the austenite/ferrite and austenite/cementite interfaces, and the modification
[...] Read more.
The goal of this paper is to analyse the effect of adding Al on the non-steady pearlite growth occurring in a Fe–C–Mn system. The results are discussed in terms of the partitioning of elements across the austenite/ferrite and austenite/cementite interfaces, and the modification of the pearlite driving force related to the change in carbon activity in austenite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Prediction of Three-Dimensional Downward Flame Spread Characteristics over Poly(methyl methacrylate) Slabs in Different Pressure Environments
Materials 2016, 9(11), 948; doi:10.3390/ma9110948
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study is aimed at predicting downward flame spread characteristics over poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with different sample dimensions in different pressure environments. Three-dimensional (3-D) downward flame spread experiments on free PMMA slabs were conducted at five locations with different altitudes, which provide
[...] Read more.
The present study is aimed at predicting downward flame spread characteristics over poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with different sample dimensions in different pressure environments. Three-dimensional (3-D) downward flame spread experiments on free PMMA slabs were conducted at five locations with different altitudes, which provide different pressures. Pressure effects on the flame spread rate, profile of pyrolysis front and flame height were analyzed at all altitudes. The flame spread rate in the steady-state stage was calculated based on the balance on the fuel surface and fuel properties. Results show that flame spread rate increases exponentially with pressure, and the exponent of pressure further shows an increasing trend with the thickness of the sample. The angle of the pyrolysis front emerged on sample residue in the width direction, which indicates a steady-burning stage, varies clearly with sample thicknesses and ambient pressures. A global non-dimensional equation was proposed to predict the variation tendency of the angle of the pyrolysis front with pressure and was found to fit well with the measured results. In addition, the dependence of average flame height on mass burning rate, sample dimension and pressure was proposed based on laminar diffusion flame theory. The fitted exponent of experimental data is 1.11, which is close to the theoretical value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Crystallization of Polymers Investigated by Temperature-Modulated DSC
Materials 2017, 10(4), 442; doi:10.3390/ma10040442
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
PDF Full-text (8795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this review is to summarize studies conducted by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) on polymer crystallization. This technique can provide several advantages for the analysis of polymers with respect to conventional differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallizations conducted by TMDSC in different
[...] Read more.
The aim of this review is to summarize studies conducted by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) on polymer crystallization. This technique can provide several advantages for the analysis of polymers with respect to conventional differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallizations conducted by TMDSC in different experimental conditions are analysed and discussed, in order to illustrate the type of information that can be deduced. Isothermal and non-isothermal crystallizations upon heating and cooling are examined separately, together with the relevant mathematical treatments that allow the evolution of the crystalline, mobile amorphous and rigid amorphous fractions to be determined. The phenomena of ‘reversing’ and ‘reversible‘ melting are explicated through the analysis of the thermal response of various semi-crystalline polymers to temperature modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Sciences and Thermodynamics of Materials)
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