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Special Issue "Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Auezhan Amanov

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asan 336708, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: micro/nano-tribology; friction reduction practice; adhesive wear/fatigue wear; fretting; hydrodynamic lubrication; surface texturing; micro/nano structure; steel; surface treatments/coatings; deformation processing/forming

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The surface modification of materials through the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD) provides an opportunity for achieving grain refinement and compressive residual stress. Surface modification techniques impose very high strains without introducing significant changes in the dimensions and chemistry of the materials; in turn, they change the microstructure, mechanical properties and improve the tribological behavior. This Special Issue outlines research based on surface modification techniques, such as shot peening (SP), laser shock peening (LSP), high-pressure torsion (HPT), ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT), equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and many others. We invite researchers from around the world to submit original research papers and review articles on the improvements in microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of materials by the application of severe plastic deformation surface modification techniques. Moreover, research on numerical simulation analysis of those surface modifications techniques is also very welcome due to the continuously increasing demands on advanced computer technology.

Prof. Dr. Auezhan Amanov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • surface modification techniques
  • severe plastic deformation
  • nanostructured materials
  • numerical simulations
  • mechanical properties
  • grain size refinement
  • microstructure
  • tribology

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Sliding Wear Behavior of UNS R56400 Titanium Alloy Samples Thermally Oxidized by Laser
Materials 2017, 10(7), 830; doi:10.3390/ma10070830
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wear of elements subjected to friction and sliding is among the main causes of low tribological performance and short lifetime of strategic materials such as titanium alloys. These types of alloys are widely used in different areas such as aerospace and the biomechanics
[...] Read more.
Wear of elements subjected to friction and sliding is among the main causes of low tribological performance and short lifetime of strategic materials such as titanium alloys. These types of alloys are widely used in different areas such as aerospace and the biomechanics industry. In this sense, surface modification treatments allow for the overcoming of limitations and improvement of features and properties. In the case of titanium alloys, improvements in the main weaknesses of these materials can be obtained. Laser texturing of UNS R56400 (Ti6Al4V) alloy, according to Unified Numbering System designation, surface layers in a non-protective atmosphere produces an increase of the oxides, especially of titanium dioxide (TiO2) species. The presence of oxides in the alloy results in color tonality variations as well as hardness increases. In addition, specific roughness topographies may be produced by the track of laser beam irradiation. In this research, thermochemical oxidation of UNS R56400 alloy has been developed through laser texturing, using scan speed of the beam (Vs) as the process control variable, and its influence on the sliding wear behavior was analyzed. For this purpose, using pin on disc tribological tests, wear was evaluated from the friction coefficient, and wear mechanisms involved in the process were analyzed. Combined studies of wear mechanisms and the friction coefficient verified that by means of specific surface treatments, an increase in the wear resistance of this type of alloys is generated. The most advantageous results for the improvement of tribological behavior have been detected in textured surfaces using a Vs of 150 mm/s, resulting in a decrease in the friction coefficient values by approximately 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructural Analysis and Wear Performance of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced SiC Composite for Brake Pads
Materials 2017, 10(7), 701; doi:10.3390/ma10070701
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
PDF Full-text (6438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/C-SiC) composite is widely used as a friction material owing to its good performance, even though it is more expensive than metallic materials. The light C/C-SiC composite is an ideal candidate for weight reduction of frictional parts. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/C-SiC) composite is widely used as a friction material owing to its good performance, even though it is more expensive than metallic materials. The light C/C-SiC composite is an ideal candidate for weight reduction of frictional parts. In this study, the friction and wear behavior of C/C-SiC composite was assessed using a ball-on-disk friction tester under dry reciprocating sliding conditions at different temperatures of 25, 100, and 200 °C. The disk specimens were made of C/C-SiC composite, while the mating counterpart pins were made of bearing steel. The microstructure and wear track of the specimens were characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The microstructural analysis of the wear track revealed that the wear mechanism was abrasive. The friction coefficient and wear behavior of the specimens was dependent on the temperature, where the friction coefficients and wear rate increased with increasing temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Strand Lay Direction and Crossing Angle on Tribological Behavior of Winding Hoist Rope
Materials 2017, 10(6), 630; doi:10.3390/ma10060630
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
PDF Full-text (14475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test
[...] Read more.
Friction and wear behavior exists between hoisting ropes that are wound around the drums of a multi-layer winding hoist. It decreases the service life of ropes and threatens mine safety. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted using a self-made test rig to study the effects of the strand lay direction and crossing angle on the winding rope’s tribological behavior. Results show that the friction coefficient in the steady-state period shows a decreasing tendency with an increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions, but the variation range is different under different cross directions. Using thermal imaging, the high temperature regions always distribute along the strand lay direction in the gap between adjacent strands, as the cross direction is the same with the strand lay direction (right cross contact). Additionally, the temperature rise in the steady-state increases with the increase of the crossing angle in both cross directions. The differences of the wear scar morphology are obvious under different cross directions, especially for the large crossing angle tests. In the case of right cross, the variation range of wear mass loss is larger than that in left cross. The damage that forms on the wear surface is mainly ploughing, pits, plastic deformation, and fatigue fracture. The major wear mechanisms are adhesive wear, and abrasive and fatigue wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Enhancement of Wheel-Rail Interaction by Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification Technique
Materials 2017, 10(2), 188; doi:10.3390/ma10020188
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique was applied to normal and heat-treated rails made of 60 kgK steel to enhance the wear resistance of the wheel-rail interaction. The hardness and compressive residual stress values of the untreated and UNSM-treated
[...] Read more.
In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique was applied to normal and heat-treated rails made of 60 kgK steel to enhance the wear resistance of the wheel-rail interaction. The hardness and compressive residual stress values of the untreated and UNSM-treated rails were measured by the Brinell hardness tester and X-ray diffraction technique, respectively. It was found, according to the measurement results, that the hardness was increased by about 20% and 8%, whereas the compressive residual stress was induced by about 52% and 62% for the UNSM-treated normal and heat-treated rails, respectively. The UNSM-treated normal rail showed a slightly higher hardness than the heat-treated rail. The wear resistance of rails with respect to rotating speed and rolling time was assessed using a rolling contact wear (RCW) tester under dry conditions. The RCW test results revealed that the wear of the UNSM-treated rails was enhanced in comparison with those of the untreated rails. Also, the wear amount of the rails was increased with increasing the rotation speed. The UNSM-treated normal rail exhibited the highest wear resistance with respect to the rotation speed. The wear mechanisms of the rails are also discussed based on microscopic images of the worn out surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Friction Durability of Extremely Thin Diamond-Like Carbon Films at High Temperature
Materials 2017, 10(2), 159; doi:10.3390/ma10020159
Received: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract
To clarify the friction durability, both during and after the high-temperature heating of nanometer-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, deposited using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) and plasma chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) methods, the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load and sliding
[...] Read more.
To clarify the friction durability, both during and after the high-temperature heating of nanometer-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, deposited using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) and plasma chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) methods, the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load and sliding cycles of the DLC films, were evaluated. Cluster-I consisted of a low friction area in which the DLC film was effective, while cluster-II consisted of a high friction area in which the lubricating effect of the DLC film was lost. The friction durability of the films was evaluated by statistical cluster analysis. Extremely thin FCVA-DLC films exhibited an excellent wear resistance at room temperature, but their friction durability was decreased at high temperatures. In contrast, the durability of the P-CVD-DLC films was increased at high temperatures when compared with that observed at room temperature. This inverse dependence on temperature corresponded to the nano-friction results obtained by atomic force microscopy. The decrease in the friction durability of the FCVA-DLC films at high temperatures, was caused by a complex effect of temperature and friction. The tribochemical reaction produced by the P-CVD-DLC films reduced their friction coefficient, increasing their durability at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(12), 986; doi:10.3390/ma9120986
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract
Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %).
[...] Read more.
Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Friction and Wear Reduction of Eccentric Journal Bearing Made of Sn-Based Babbitt for Ore Cone Crusher
Materials 2016, 9(11), 950; doi:10.3390/ma9110950
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
PDF Full-text (5936 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An anti-friction Babbitt alloy-coated bearing made by a casting process is a journal bearing, which is used in an ore cone crusher eccentric. The main purpose of the Babbitt coated eccentric is to provide a low friction to support and guide a rotating
[...] Read more.
An anti-friction Babbitt alloy-coated bearing made by a casting process is a journal bearing, which is used in an ore cone crusher eccentric. The main purpose of the Babbitt coated eccentric is to provide a low friction to support and guide a rotating shaft. Despite the fact that the Babbitt-coated eccentric offers a low friction coefficient and can be operated without a continuous supply of lubricant, it suffers from mining environments and short service life. In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique was used to further reduce the friction coefficient, to increase the wear resistance, and to extend the service life of the Sn-based Babbitt metal. The friction and wear behavior of the Sn-based Babbitt metal was investigated using a block-on-ring tester under both dry and oil-lubricated conditions. The results of the experiments revealed that the friction and wear behavior of Sn-based Babbitt metal could be improved by the application of the UNSM technique. The friction and wear mechanisms of the specimens were explained and discussed in terms of changes in surface properties—microstructure, surface hardness, surface roughness, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Texturing-Plasma Nitriding Duplex Treatment for Improving Tribological Performance of AISI 316 Stainless Steel
Materials 2016, 9(11), 875; doi:10.3390/ma9110875
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (23301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a
[...] Read more.
Surface texturing-plasma nitriding duplex treatment was conducted on AISI 316 stainless steel to improve its tribological performance. Tribological behaviors of ground 316 substrates, plasma-nitrided 316 (PN-316), surface-textured 316 (ST-316), and duplex-treated 316 (DT-316) in air and under grease lubrication were investigated using a pin-on-disc rotary tribometer against counterparts of high carbon chromium bearing steel GCr15 and silicon nitride Si3N4 balls. The variations in friction coefficient, mass loss, and worn trace morphology of the tested samples were systemically investigated and analyzed. The results showed that a textured surface was formed on 316 after electrochemical processing in a 15 wt % NaCl solution. Grooves and dimples were found on the textured surface. As plasma nitriding was conducted on a 316 substrate and ST-316, continuous and uniform nitriding layers were successfully fabricated on the surfaces of the 316 substrate and ST-316. Both of the obtained nitriding layers presented thickness values of more than 30 μm. The nitriding layers were composed of iron nitrides and chromium nitride. The 316 substrate and ST-316 received improved surface hardness after plasma nitriding. When the tribological tests were carried out under dry sliding and grease lubrication conditions, the tested samples showed different tribological behaviors. As expected, the DT-316 samples revealed the most promising tribological properties, reflected by the lowest mass loss and worn morphologies. The DT-316 received the slightest damage, and its excellent tribological performance was attributed to the following aspects: firstly, the nitriding layer had high surface hardness; secondly, the surface texture was able to capture wear debris, store up grease, and then provide continuous lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Surface Densification on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgical Gears by Using a Surface Rolling Process
Materials 2016, 9(10), 846; doi:10.3390/ma9100846
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Powder metallurgy (PM) components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to
[...] Read more.
Powder metallurgy (PM) components are widely used in the auto industry due to the advantage of net-shape forming, low cost, and high efficiency. Still, usage of PM components is limited in the auto industry when encountering rigorous situations, like heavy load, due to lower strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties compared to wrought components due to the existence of massive pores in the PM components. In this study, through combining the powder metallurgy process and rolling process, the pores in the PM components were decreased and a homogenous densified layer was formed on the surface, which resulted in the enhancement of the strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties, which can expand its range of application. In this paper, we study the impact of different rolling feeds on the performance of the components’ surfaces. We found that with the increase of the rolling feed, the depth of the densified layer increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C) Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles
Materials 2016, 9(10), 795; doi:10.3390/ma9100795
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C
[...] Read more.
Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs) in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle The Contact Ageing Effect on Fretting Damage of an Electro-Deposited Coating against an AISI52100 Steel Ball
Materials 2016, 9(9), 754; doi:10.3390/ma9090754
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
PDF Full-text (4728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article investigates the effect of contact ageing on fretting damage of an epoxy-based cathodic electro-deposited coating for use on automotive seat slide tracks (made of cold-rolled high strength steel). Static normal load was induced at the contact between the coating and an
[...] Read more.
This article investigates the effect of contact ageing on fretting damage of an epoxy-based cathodic electro-deposited coating for use on automotive seat slide tracks (made of cold-rolled high strength steel). Static normal load was induced at the contact between the coating and an AISI52100 ball for a certain duration. It was identified that plastically deformed contact area increased logarithmically as a function of time when the contact was under static normal load. Fretting tests after various durations of static contact were conducted using a ball-on-flat plate apparatus. All fretting tests were halted when the friction coefficient reached a critical value of 0.5, indicating complete coating failure. The total number of fretting cycles to the critical friction coefficient was found to vary with the duration of static contact before fretting. It was identified that the number of cycles to the critical friction coefficient decreased with the increased duration of static contact. Meanwhile, the friction coefficient at steady-state sliding was not greatly affected by the duration of static contact before fretting. Finally, the relation between coating thickness after indentation creep and the number of cycles to the critical friction coefficient was found to be linear. Obtained results show that the duration of static contact before fretting has an influence on the fretting lifetime of an electro-deposited coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Behavior of Materials by Surface Engineering)
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