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Materials 2016, 9(11), 944; doi:10.3390/ma9110944

Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Norwida 4/6, 50-373 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvia Gross
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein. View Full-Text
Keywords: lysozyme; ovalbumin; mixture of proteins; biomineralization; calcite; Turbiscan lysozyme; ovalbumin; mixture of proteins; biomineralization; calcite; Turbiscan
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Polowczyk, I.; Bastrzyk, A.; Fiedot, M. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate. Materials 2016, 9, 944.

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