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Special Issue "Selected Papers from ICASI 2016"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +886 6 2757575 ext 62391
Fax: +886 6 2761854
Interests: optical and electronic devices; semi-conductive materials; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Teen-Hang Meen

Department of Electronic Engineering, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: photovoltaic device; dye-sensitized solar cells; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Dr. Stephen D. Prior

Aeronautics, Astronautics and Computational Engineering, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microsystem design; nanotechnology; applied science
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Artde Donald Kin-­Tak Lam

College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P. R. China
E-Mail
Interests: nanostructures;nanometals;nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The IEEE 2016 International Conference on Applied System Innovation (ICASI 2016) will be held in Okinawa, Japan, on 26–30 May, 2016, and will provide a unified communication platform for researchers on a wide range of topics. Scientists all over the world actively want to discover new advanced materials in electrical and mechanical engineering. In recent years, the application of advanced materials has been a highly developing field, in the areas of semiconductor and electronic device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. Therefore, the field of electrical and mechanical materials has been a subject of review. The scope of ICASI 2016 not only encompasses material sizes at the nanoscale, but also in various dimensions where the onset of size dependent phenomena usually enables novel applications.

This Special Issue selects excellent papers from ICASI 2016 and covers the following scopes: including, fundamental and advanced materials of electrical and mechanical engineering, their synthesis, engineering their application properties based on optical electrochemical, magnetic, acoustic, and thermal transduction, their integration with many elements, designing of electrical or mechanical devices, evaluation various performance and exploring their broad applications in industry, environmental control, material analysis, etc. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, to this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

• Developments of advanced materials for new electrical and optical properties

• Nanomaterials for preparation and applications

• Computational analysis for materials and structures

• Combinatorial methods of advanced materials for mechanical design and optimization

• Mechanical applications in advanced materials

 

Prof. Dr. Teen­Hang Meen
Prof. Dr. Shoou-Jinn Chang
Dr. Stephen D. Prior
Prof. Dr. Artde Donald Kin­Tak Lam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced materials
  • nanomaterials
  • computational analysis for materials and structures
  • combinatorial methods of advanced materials for mechanical design and optimization
  • mechanical applications in advanced materials

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Acoustic Modulation and Mixed Fuel on Flame Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials in an Atmospheric Environment
Materials 2016, 9(11), 939; doi:10.3390/ma9110939
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, methane–ethylene jet diffusion flames modulated by acoustic excitation in an atmospheric environment were used to investigate the effects of acoustic excitation frequency and mixed fuel on nanomaterial formation. Acoustic output power was maintained at a constant value of 10 W,
[...] Read more.
In this study, methane–ethylene jet diffusion flames modulated by acoustic excitation in an atmospheric environment were used to investigate the effects of acoustic excitation frequency and mixed fuel on nanomaterial formation. Acoustic output power was maintained at a constant value of 10 W, while the acoustic excitation frequency was varied (f = 0–90 Hz). The results show that the flame could not be stabilized on the port when the ethylene volume concentration (ΩE) was less than 40% at f = 10 Hz, or when ΩE = 0% (i.e., pure methane) at f = 90 Hz. The reason for this is that the flame had a low intensity and was extinguished by the entrained air due to acoustic modulation. Without acoustic excitation (f = 0 Hz), the flame was comprised of a single-layer structure for all values of ΩE, and almost no carbon nanomaterials were synthesized. However, with acoustic excitation, a double-layer flame structure was generated for frequencies close to both the natural flickering frequency and the acoustically resonant frequency. This double-layer flame structure provided a favorable flame environment for the fabrication of carbon nanomaterials. Consequently, the synthesis of carbon nano-onions was significantly enhanced by acoustic excitation near both the natural flickering frequency and the acoustically resonant frequency. At f = 20 Hz (near the natural flickering frequency) for 0% ≤ ΩE ≤ 100%, a quantity of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) piled like bunches of grapes was obtained as a result of improved mixing of the fuel with ambient air. High-density CNOs were also produced at f = 70 Hz (close to the acoustically resonant frequency) for 40% ≤ ΩE ≤ 100%. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized only at 80 Hz for ΩE = 0%. The suitable temperature range for the synthesis of CNTs was slightly higher than that for the formation of CNOs (about 600 °C for CNTs; 510–600 °C for CNOs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Formation and Entrapment of Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum from 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Anodic Porous Alumina
Materials 2016, 9(9), 715; doi:10.3390/ma9090715
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation and entrapment of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) molecules on the surface of anodic porous alumina (APA) immersed in an ethanol solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) were investigated by absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies. The effects of the selected APA preparation conditions (galvanostatic
[...] Read more.
The formation and entrapment of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) molecules on the surface of anodic porous alumina (APA) immersed in an ethanol solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) were investigated by absorption, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies. The effects of the selected APA preparation conditions (galvanostatic or potentiostatic anodization method, anodizing current and voltage values, one- or two-step anodizing process, and sulfuric acid electrolyte concentration) on the adsorption and desorption of Alq3 species were examined. Among the listed parameters, sulfuric acid concentration was the most important factor in determining the Alq3 adsorption characteristics. The Alq3 content measured after desorption under galvanostatic conditions was 2.5 times larger than that obtained under potentiostatic ones, regardless of the adsorbed quantities. The obtained results suggest the existence of at least two types of adsorption sites on the APA surface characterized by different magnitudes of the Alq3 bonding strength. The related fluorescence spectra contained two peaks at wavelengths of 480 and 505 nm, which could be attributed to isolated Alq3 species inside nanovoids and aggregated Alq3 clusters in the pores of APA, respectively. The former species were attached to the adsorption sites with higher binding energies, whereas the latter ones were bound to the APA surface more weakly. Similar results were obtained for the Alq3 species formed from the HQ solution, which quantitatively exceeded the number of the Alq3 species adsorbed from the Alq3 solution. Alq3 molecules were formed in the HQ solution during the reaction of HQ molecules with the Al3+ ions in the oxide dissolution zone near the oxide/electrolyte interface through the cracks and the Al3+ ions adsorbed on surface of pore and cracks. In addition, it was suggested that HQ molecules could penetrate the nanovoids more easily than Alq3 species because of their smaller sizes, which resulted in higher magnitudes of the adsorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of the Mechanical Properties of 1022 Carbon Steel Coil by Using the Taguchi Method to Optimize Spheroidized Annealing Conditions
Materials 2016, 9(8), 693; doi:10.3390/ma9080693
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cold forging is often applied in the fastener industry. Wires in coil form are used as semi-finished products for the production of billets. This process usually requires preliminarily drawing wire coil in order to reduce the diameter of products. The wire usually has
[...] Read more.
Cold forging is often applied in the fastener industry. Wires in coil form are used as semi-finished products for the production of billets. This process usually requires preliminarily drawing wire coil in order to reduce the diameter of products. The wire usually has to be annealed to improve its cold formability. The quality of spheroidizing annealed wire affects the forming quality of screws. In the fastener industry, most companies use a subcritical process for spheroidized annealing. Various parameters affect the spheroidized annealing quality of steel wire, such as the spheroidized annealing temperature, prolonged heating time, furnace cooling time and flow rate of nitrogen (protective atmosphere). The effects of the spheroidized annealing parameters affect the quality characteristics of steel wire, such as the tensile strength and hardness. A series of experimental tests on AISI 1022 low carbon steel wire are carried out and the Taguchi method is used to obtain optimum spheroidized annealing conditions to improve the mechanical properties of steel wires for cold forming. The results show that the spheroidized annealing temperature and prolonged heating time have the greatest effect on the mechanical properties of steel wires. A comparison between the results obtained using the optimum spheroidizing conditions and the measures using the original settings shows the new spheroidizing parameter settings effectively improve the performance measures over their value at the original settings. The results presented in this paper could be used as a reference for wire manufacturers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage
Materials 2016, 9(8), 682; doi:10.3390/ma9080682
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
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Abstract
This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a
[...] Read more.
This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs) and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode with periodic holes (perforations) under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Various Active Layers for Their Performance on Organic Solar Cells
Materials 2016, 9(8), 667; doi:10.3390/ma9080667
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The theoretical mechanism of open-circuit voltages (VOC) in OSCs based on various small molecule organic materials is studied. The structure under investigation is simple planar heterojunction (PHJ) by thermal vacuum evaporation deposition. The various wide band gaps of small molecule organic
[...] Read more.
The theoretical mechanism of open-circuit voltages (VOC) in OSCs based on various small molecule organic materials is studied. The structure under investigation is simple planar heterojunction (PHJ) by thermal vacuum evaporation deposition. The various wide band gaps of small molecule organic materials are used to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The donor materials used in the device include: Alpha-sexithiophene (α-6T), Copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc), boron subnaphthalocyanine chloride (SubNc) and boron Subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc). It is combined with fullerene or SubPc acceptor material to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the charge transport behavior. It is found that the VOC of the device is largely limited by charge transport. This was associated with the space charge effects and hole accumulation. These results are attributed to the improvement of surface roughness and work function after molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) is inserted as an anode buffer layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Patterned Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Assisted with Polystyrene Monolayer by Oxygen Plasma Treatment
Materials 2016, 9(8), 656; doi:10.3390/ma9080656
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized
[...] Read more.
Zinc oxide is known as a promising material for sensing devices due to its piezoelectric properties. In particular, the alignment of ZnO nanostructures into ordered nanoarrays is expected to improve the device sensitivity due to the large surface area which can be utilized to capture significant quantities of gas particles. However, ZnO nanorods are difficult to grow on the quartz substrate with well-ordered shape. So, we investigated nanostructures by adjusting the interval distance of the arranged ZnO nanorods using polystyrene (PS) spheres of various sizes (800 nm, 1300 nm and 1600 nm). In addition, oxygen plasma treatment was used to specify the nucleation site of round, patterned ZnO nanorod growth. Therefore, ZnO nanorods were grown on a quartz substrate with a patterned polystyrene monolayer by the hydrothermal method after oxygen plasma treatment. The obtained ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Study of Laminar Flow and Convective Heat Transfer Utilizing Nanofluids in Equilateral Triangular Ducts with Constant Heat Flux
Materials 2016, 9(7), 576; doi:10.3390/ma9070576
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study numerically investigates heat transfer augmentation using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids flowing in a triangular cross-sectional duct under constant heat flux in laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3/water nanofluids with different volume fractions (0.1%, 0.5%,
[...] Read more.
This study numerically investigates heat transfer augmentation using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids flowing in a triangular cross-sectional duct under constant heat flux in laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3/water nanofluids with different volume fractions (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) and CuO/water nanofluids with various volume fractions (0.05%, 0.16%, 0.36%, 0.5%, and 0.8%) are employed, and Reynolds numbers in the range of 700 to 1900 in a laminar flow are considered. The heat transfer rate becomes more remarkable when employing nanofluids. As compared with pure water, at a Peclet number of 7000, a 35% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient, is obtained for an Al2O3/water nanofluid with 2% particle volume fraction; at the same Peclet number, a 41% enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient is achieved for a CuO/water nanofluid with 0.8% particle volume concentration. Heat transfer enhancement increases with increases in particle volume concentration and Peclet number. Moreover, the numerical results are found to be in good agreement with published experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Visible Transmittance of Thermochromic VO2 Thin Films by SiO2 Passivation Layer and Their Optical Characterization
Materials 2016, 9(7), 556; doi:10.3390/ma9070556
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis) via radio frequency (RF) sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). VO2 thin films with high Tvis and
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis) via radio frequency (RF) sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). VO2 thin films with high Tvis and excellent optical switching efficiency (Eos) were successfully prepared by employing SiO2 as a passivation layer. After SiO2 deposition, the roughness of the films was decreased 2-fold and a denser structure was formed. These morphological changes corresponded to the results of optical characterization including the haze, reflectance and absorption spectra. In spite of SiO2 coating, the phase transition temperature (Tc) of the prepared films was not affected. Compared with pristine VO2, the total layer thickness after SiO2 coating was 160 nm, which is an increase of 80 nm. Despite the thickness change, the VO2 thin films showed a higher Tvis value (λ 650 nm, 58%) compared with the pristine samples (λ 650 nm, 43%). This enhancement of Tvis while maintaining high Eos is meaningful for VO2-based smart window applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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Open AccessArticle The Resistive Switching Characteristics in ZrO2 and Its Filamentary Conduction Behavior
Materials 2016, 9(7), 551; doi:10.3390/ma9070551
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the conduction properties of sputtered ZrO2 exhibiting reversible and stable resistance change. Similar current distributions in on/off conduction and set/reset switching were observed in top electrodes with a diameter of 150, 250, and 350 µm. The size independence of
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the conduction properties of sputtered ZrO2 exhibiting reversible and stable resistance change. Similar current distributions in on/off conduction and set/reset switching were observed in top electrodes with a diameter of 150, 250, and 350 µm. The size independence of current magnitude implied the presence of an uneven filamentary path over the electrode area. Increased current compliance was imposed on the turn-on process, and the observed increase in on-state current and turn-off threshold was attributed to incremental filament diameter. Variations in current conduction and resistance switching were analyzed by monitoring sweeping bias limits in both positive and negative polarities. These experimental observations were interpreted based on the aspect ratio of channels comprising conductive and oxidized filament portions, thereby elucidating the characteristics of filamentary resistive switching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
Open AccessArticle Low Cost Local Contact Opening by Using Polystyrene Spheres Spin-Coating Method for PERC Solar Cells
Materials 2016, 9(7), 549; doi:10.3390/ma9070549
Received: 29 May 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) concept is one of the most promising technologies for increasing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency. Instead of using the traditional laser ablation process, this paper demonstrates spin-coated polystyrene spheres (PS) to create local openings on the
[...] Read more.
The passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) concept is one of the most promising technologies for increasing crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency. Instead of using the traditional laser ablation process, this paper demonstrates spin-coated polystyrene spheres (PS) to create local openings on the rear side of PERCs. Effects of PS concentration and post-annealing temperature on PERC performance are investigated. The experimental results show that the PS are randomly distributed on wafers and no PS are joined together at a spin rate of 2000 rpm. The PS can be removed at a temperature of 350 °C, leaving holes on the passivation layers without damaging the wafer surfaces. As compared to the laser opening technique with the same contact fraction, the PS opening technique can yield a higher minority effective lifetime, a higher implied open-circuit voltage, and a slightly higher short-circuit current. Although the fill factor of the PS opening technique is lower owing to non-optimized distribution of the openings, the conversion efficiency of the devices is comparable to that of devices prepared via the laser opening process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
Open AccessArticle Acid-Alkali Resistance of New Reclaimed Tiles Containing Sewage Sludge Ash and Waste Glass
Materials 2016, 9(7), 546; doi:10.3390/ma9070546
Received: 13 May 2016 / Revised: 27 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 7 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, properties of newly developed reclaimed tiles in a harmful environment were investigated. A portion of clay used to manufacture tiles was replaced with sewage sludge ash (SSA) and waste glass to produce the new reclaimed tiles. To investigate the effects
[...] Read more.
In this study, properties of newly developed reclaimed tiles in a harmful environment were investigated. A portion of clay used to manufacture tiles was replaced with sewage sludge ash (SSA) and waste glass to produce the new reclaimed tiles. To investigate the effects of SSA and waste glass on the properties of the tiles, different specimens were blended and placed in acid-alkali solutions. The reclaimed tile specimens were manufactured by clay, 10% SSA, and five different mixes of waste glass replacement, namely, 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60%. These specimens were calcined at 1000 °C and subsequently underwent a series of tests, including TGA/DTA (thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), bending strength, weight loss, and porosity. Test results show that shortcomings associated with the introduction of the sludge ash were improved by the admixture of waste glass, especially in the aspects of shrinkage and bending strength. The study showed that the new reclaimed tiles performed relatively well in acid-alkali resistance tests but appeared to have better alkali resistance than acid resistance. It was also found that the optimal mix of such reclaimed tiles was 10% SSA, 10% waste glass, and 80% clay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
Open AccessArticle Copper-Zinc-Tin-Sulfur Thin Film Using Spin-Coating Technology
Materials 2016, 9(7), 526; doi:10.3390/ma9070526
Received: 22 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using spin-coating and an annealing process, which can improve the crystallinity and morphology of the thin films. The grain size, optical gap, and atomic contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn),
[...] Read more.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using spin-coating and an annealing process, which can improve the crystallinity and morphology of the thin films. The grain size, optical gap, and atomic contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and sulfur (S) in a CZTS thin film absorber relate to the concentrations of aqueous precursor solutions containing copper chloride (CuCl2), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), tin chloride (SnCl2), and thiourea (SC(NH2)2), whereas the electrical properties of CZTS thin films depend on the annealing temperature and the atomic content ratios of Cu/(Zn + Sn) and Zn/Sn. All of the CZTS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements. Furthermore, CZTS thin film was deposited on an n-type silicon substrate by using spin-coating to form an Mo/p-CZTS/n-Si/Al heterostructured solar cell. The p-CZTS/n-Si heterostructured solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 1.13% with Voc = 520 mV, Jsc = 3.28 mA/cm2, and fill-factor (FF) = 66%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of an Amorphous Titanium Oxide Film Deposited onto a Nano-Textured Fluorination Surface
Materials 2016, 9(6), 429; doi:10.3390/ma9060429
Received: 6 May 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
PDF Full-text (9058 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The photocatalytic activity of an amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiOx) film was modified using a two-step deposition. The fluorinated base layer with a nano-textured surface prepared by a selective fluorination etching process acted as growth seeds in the subsequent a-TiOx deposition.
[...] Read more.
The photocatalytic activity of an amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiOx) film was modified using a two-step deposition. The fluorinated base layer with a nano-textured surface prepared by a selective fluorination etching process acted as growth seeds in the subsequent a-TiOx deposition. A nanorod-like microstructure was achievable from the resulting a-TiOx film due to the self-assembled deposition. Compared to the a-TiOx film directly deposited onto the untreated base layer, the rate constant of this fluorinate-free a-TiOx film surface for decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution that was employed to assess the film’s photocatalytic activity was markedly increased from 0.0076 min−1 to 0.0267 min−1 as a mechanism for the marked increase in the specific surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ICASI 2016)
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