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Special Issue "Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alina Maria Holban

Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Aleea Portocalelor no 1-3, 060101 Bucharest, Romania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: in vitro and in vivo bioevaluation of nanostructures; microbiology; immunology; molecular biology; alternative methods for modulating virulence; communication and behavior of microbial pathogens
Guest Editor
Dr. Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

Department of Science and Engineereing of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, RO-011061, Bucharest, Romania
Website | E-Mail
Interests: synthesis and characterization of nanobiomaterials, pharmaceutical nanotechnology, drug targeting; drug delivery; anti-biofilm surfaces; nanomodified surfaces; thin films; natural products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue engineering represents one of the most investigated biomedical fields, as the design of tissues and organs could significantly improve the life quality of numerous patients affected by debilitating diseases and yet untreatable health conditions. In recent years, numerous studies have reported the production of specialized materials able to pamper tissue engineering and to allow the development of novel therapeutic approaches for regenerative medicine. Materials science was significantly influenced by the development of nanotechnology, the design of nanometer size materials being a very investigated an applicative domain, with a great input for tissue engineering. Tailored materials were efficiently produced to support regenerative medicine both in soft and hard tissue engineering. Smart nanomaterials were proved to ensure a particular effect and to facilitate specific processes to promote regeneration and tissue development if particular conditions are reached. Moreover, the industry of prosthetic devices was also supported by the great variety of novel and tailored materials, which can be efficiently utilized in the design of improved and personalized prosthetic devices and medical surfaces. The purpose of this special issue is to bring together the most recent and significant knowledge made on the field of materials science with relevant applications in tissue engineering and also to highlight the most interesting directions currently approached for the development of novel and efficient nanomaterials to support both soft and hard tissue engineering and prosthetic.

Dr. Alina Maria Holban
Dr. Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Regenerative medicine
  • Tailored materials
  • Soft tissue engineering
  • Hard tissue engineering
  • Scaffolds
  • Stem cells networks
  • Smart nanomaterials
  • Novel prosthesis
  • Tailored medical surfaces
  • Nanomedicine

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Scaling-Up Techniques for the Nanofabrication of Cell Culture Substrates via Two-Photon Polymerization for Industrial-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells
Materials 2017, 10(1), 66; doi:10.3390/ma10010066
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Stem-cell-based therapies require a high number (106–109) of cells, therefore in vitro expansion is needed because of the initially low amount of stem cells obtainable from human tissues. Standard protocols for stem cell expansion are currently based on chemically-defined
[...] Read more.
Stem-cell-based therapies require a high number (106–109) of cells, therefore in vitro expansion is needed because of the initially low amount of stem cells obtainable from human tissues. Standard protocols for stem cell expansion are currently based on chemically-defined culture media and animal-derived feeder-cell layers, which expose cells to additives and to xenogeneic compounds, resulting in potential issues when used in clinics. The two-photon laser polymerization technique enables three-dimensional micro-structures to be fabricated, which we named synthetic nichoids. Here we review our activity on the technological improvements in manufacturing biomimetic synthetic nichoids and, in particular on the optimization of the laser-material interaction to increase the patterned area and the percentage of cell culture surface covered by such synthetic nichoids, from a low initial value of 10% up to 88% with an optimized micromachining time. These results establish two-photon laser polymerization as a promising tool to fabricate substrates for stem cell expansion, without any chemical supplement and in feeder-free conditions for potential therapeutic uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Study of a Novel Porcine Collagen Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2016, 9(11), 949; doi:10.3390/ma9110949
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
For years, in order to improve bone regeneration and prevent the need of a second stage surgery to remove non-resorbable membranes, biological absorbable membranes have gradually been developed and applied in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The present study’s main objective was to achieve
[...] Read more.
For years, in order to improve bone regeneration and prevent the need of a second stage surgery to remove non-resorbable membranes, biological absorbable membranes have gradually been developed and applied in guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The present study’s main objective was to achieve space maintenance and bone regeneration using a new freeze-dried developed porcine collagen membrane, and compare it with an already commercial collagen membrane, when both were used with a bovine xenograft in prepared alveolar ridge bone defects. Prior to surgery, the membrane’s vitality analysis showed statistically significant higher cell proliferation in the test membrane over the commercial one. In six beagle dogs, commercial bone xenograft was packed in lateral ridge bone defects prepared in the left and right side and then covered with test porcine collagen membrane or commercial collagen membrane. Alveolar height changes were measured. Histomorphometric results, in vitro and in vivo properties indicated that the new porcine collagen membrane is biocompatible, enhances bone xenograft osteoconduction, and reduces the alveolar ridge height reabsorption rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic, Antimicrobial and Biocompatibility Features of Cotton Knit Coated with Fe-N-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Materials 2016, 9(9), 789; doi:10.3390/ma9090789
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our research was focused on the evaluation of the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties, as well as biocompatibility of cotton fabrics coated with fresh and reused dispersions of nanoscaled TiO2-1% Fe-N particles prepared by the hydrothermal method and post-annealed at 400 °C.
[...] Read more.
Our research was focused on the evaluation of the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties, as well as biocompatibility of cotton fabrics coated with fresh and reused dispersions of nanoscaled TiO2-1% Fe-N particles prepared by the hydrothermal method and post-annealed at 400 °C. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The textiles coated with doped TiO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and their photocatalytic effect by trichromatic coordinates of the materials stained with methylene blue and coffee and exposed to UV, visible and solar light. The resulting doped TiO2 consists of a mixture of prevailing anatase phase and a small amount (~15%–20%) of brookite, containing Fe3+ and nitrogen. By reusing dispersions of TiO2-1% Fe-N, high amounts of photocatalysts were deposited on the fabrics, and the photocatalytic activity was improved, especially under visible light. The treated fabrics exhibited specific antimicrobial features, which were dependent on their composition, microbial strain and incubation time. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation on CCD-1070Sk dermal fibroblasts confirmed the absence of cytotoxicity after short-term exposure. These results highlight the potential of TiO2-1% Fe-N nanoparticles for further use in the development of innovative self-cleaning and antimicrobial photocatalytic cotton textiles. However, further studies are required in order to assess the long-term skin exposure effects and the possible particle release due to wearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Morphological and Structural Study of a Novel Porous Nurse’s A Ceramic with Osteoconductive Properties for Tissue Engineering
Materials 2016, 9(6), 474; doi:10.3390/ma9060474
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (17887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characterization process of a new porous Nurse’s A ceramic and the physico chemical nature of the remodeled interface between the implant and the surrounding bone were studied after in vivo implantation. Scaffolds were prepared by a solid-state reaction and implanted in New
[...] Read more.
The characterization process of a new porous Nurse’s A ceramic and the physico chemical nature of the remodeled interface between the implant and the surrounding bone were studied after in vivo implantation. Scaffolds were prepared by a solid-state reaction and implanted in New Zealand rabbits. Animals were sacrificed on days 15, 30, and 60. The porous biomaterial displayed biocompatible, bioresorbable, and osteoconductive capacity. The degradation processes of implants also encouraged osseous tissue ingrowths into the material’s pores, and drastically changed the macro- and microstructure of the implants. After 60 healing days, the resorption rates were 52.62% ± 1.12% for the ceramic and 47.38% ± 1.24% for the residual biomaterial. The elemental analysis showed a gradual diffusion of the Ca and Si ions from the materials into the newly forming bone during the biomaterial’s resorption process. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the residual ceramic revealed some particle categories with different mean Ca/P ratios according to size, and indicated various resorption process stages. Since osteoconductive capacity was indicated for this material and bone ingrowth was possible, it could be applied to progressively substitute an implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
Open AccessArticle Silver Nanocoatings for Reducing the Exogenous Microbial Colonization of Wound Dressings
Materials 2016, 9(5), 345; doi:10.3390/ma9050345
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to obtain an antimicrobial coating (NanoAg) for polyester-nylon wound dressings (WDs) for reducing the risk of exogenous wound related infections. The as-prepared NanoAg-WDs were characterized by XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy),
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to obtain an antimicrobial coating (NanoAg) for polyester-nylon wound dressings (WDs) for reducing the risk of exogenous wound related infections. The as-prepared NanoAg-WDs were characterized by XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SAED (Selected Area Electron Diffraction) and IRM (InfraRed Microscopy). Biological characterization consisted of in vitro evaluation of the interaction with fibroblast cell cultures and in vivo biodistribution studies of AgNPs on mice models. Then, specimens of commercial WDs were immersed in a glucose and NaOH solution of silver nanoparticles, followed by the subsequent dropwise addition of AgNO3 solution. The antimicrobial efficiency of the NanoAg-WDs was assessed by in vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the tested nanoparticles utilized to coat WDs have a good biocompatibility, allowing the normal development of cultured human cells and revealing a normal biodistribution within a mouse model, without toxic effects. The modified and viable cells count analyses proved that the modified WDs exhibit an improved inhibitory activity of microbial colonization, attachment and biofilm growth. The reported data recommend this type of coatings to obtain modified WDs with antibacterial properties, able to prevent the exogenous microbial contamination of the wound tissue, colonization and further biofilm development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Functionalized Porous Titanium Implants for Enhancing Angiogenesis in Vitro
Materials 2016, 9(4), 304; doi:10.3390/ma9040304
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
PDF Full-text (5045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Implant constructs supporting angiogenesis are favorable for treating critically-sized bone defects, as ingrowth of capillaries towards the center of large defects is often insufficient. Consequently, the insufficient nutritional supply of these regions leads to impaired bone healing. Implants with specially designed angiogenic supporting
[...] Read more.
Implant constructs supporting angiogenesis are favorable for treating critically-sized bone defects, as ingrowth of capillaries towards the center of large defects is often insufficient. Consequently, the insufficient nutritional supply of these regions leads to impaired bone healing. Implants with specially designed angiogenic supporting geometry and functionalized with proangiogenic cytokines can enhance angiogenesis. In this study, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) were used for incorporation into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)-coated porous titanium implants. Bioactivity of released factors and influence on angiogenesis of functionalized implants were evaluated using a migration assay and angiogenesis assays. Both implants released angiogenic factors, inducing migration of endothelial cells. Also, VEGF-functionalized PCL-coated titanium implants enhanced angiogenesis in vitro. Both factors were rapidly released in high doses from the implant coating during the first 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)

Review

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Open AccessReview Electrospun Scaffolds for Corneal Tissue Engineering: A Review
Materials 2016, 9(8), 614; doi:10.3390/ma9080614
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corneal diseases constitute the second leading cause of vision loss and affect more than 10 million people globally. As there is a severe shortage of fresh donated corneas and an unknown risk of immune rejection with traditional heterografts, it is very important and
[...] Read more.
Corneal diseases constitute the second leading cause of vision loss and affect more than 10 million people globally. As there is a severe shortage of fresh donated corneas and an unknown risk of immune rejection with traditional heterografts, it is very important and urgent to construct a corneal equivalent to replace pathologic corneal tissue. Corneal tissue engineering has emerged as a practical strategy to develop corneal tissue substitutes, and the design of a scaffold with mechanical properties and transparency similar to that of natural cornea is paramount for the regeneration of corneal tissues. Nanofibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning have high surface area–to-volume ratios and porosity that simulate the structure of protein fibers in native extra cellular matrix (ECM). The versatilities of electrospinning of polymer components, fiber structures, and functionalization have made the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical strength, transparency and biological properties for corneal tissue engineering feasible. In this paper, we review the recent developments of electrospun scaffolds for engineering corneal tissues, mainly including electrospun materials (single and blended polymers), fiber structures (isotropic or anisotropic), functionalization (improved mechanical properties and transparency), applications (corneal cell survival, maintenance of phenotype and formation of corneal tissue) and future development perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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