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Molecules, Volume 18, Issue 3 (March 2013), Pages 2458-3640

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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of N-Phenylbenzamide Derivatives, a Novel Class of Enterovirus 71 Inhibitors
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3630-3640; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033630
Received: 6 January 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel N-phenylbenzamide derivatives were synthesized and their anti-EV 71 activities were assayed in vitro. Among the compounds tested, 3-amino-N-(4-bromophenyl)-4-methoxybenzamide (1e) was active against the EV 71 strains tested at low micromolar concentrations, with IC
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A series of novel N-phenylbenzamide derivatives were synthesized and their anti-EV 71 activities were assayed in vitro. Among the compounds tested, 3-amino-N-(4-bromophenyl)-4-methoxybenzamide (1e) was active against the EV 71 strains tested at low micromolar concentrations, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 ± 0.8–12 ± 1.2 μM, and its cytotoxicity to Vero cells (TC50 = 620 ± 0.0 μM) was far lower than that of pirodavir (TC50 = 31 ± 2.2 μM). Based on these results, compound 1e is a promising lead compound for the development of anti-EV 71 drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Synthesis and Anti-Fungal Activity of Oleanolic Acid Oxime Esters
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3615-3629; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033615
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors and anti-fungal agents, twenty five oleanolic acid oxime esters were synthesized in an efficient way. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Preliminary studies based on
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In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors and anti-fungal agents, twenty five oleanolic acid oxime esters were synthesized in an efficient way. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by MS, HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Preliminary studies based on means of the Elson-Morgan method indicated that many compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS), and the original fungicidal activities results showed that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities towards Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Botrytis cinerea Pers at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. These compounds would thus merit further study and development as antifungal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Triterpenes and Triterpenoids 2013)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Celecoxib Derivatives as Possible Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antioxidant, Anticancer and Anti-HCV Agents
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3595-3614; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033595
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 12 February 2013 / Accepted: 10 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2ae were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoro-methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1ae, which were synthesized by the
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A series of novel N-(3-substituted aryl/alkyl-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-2-ylidene)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamides 2ae were synthesized by the addition of ethyl a-bromoacetate and anhydrous sodium acetate in dry ethanol to N-(substituted aryl/alkylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoro-methyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzene sulfonamides 1ae, which were synthesized by the reaction of alkyl/aryl isothiocyanates with celecoxib. The structures of the isolated products were determined by spectral methods and their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and anti-HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activities evaluated. The compounds were also tested for gastric toxicity and selected compound 1a was screened for its anticancer activity against 60 human tumor cell lines. These investigations revealed that compound 1a exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and further did not cause tissue damage in liver, kidney, colon and brain compared to untreated controls or celecoxib. Compounds 1c and 1d displayed modest inhibition of HCV NS5B RdRp activity. In conclusion, N-(ethylcarbamothioyl)-4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide (1a) may have the potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 3-(2-Aminoheterocycle)-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide Derivatives as BACE-1 Inhibitors
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3577-3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033577
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three series of 3-(2-aminoheterocycle)-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide derivatives, 2-aminooxazoles, 2-aminothiazoles, and 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizines were designed, synthesized and evaluated as β-secretase (BACE-1) inhibitors. Preliminary structure-activity relationships revealed that the existence of a 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizine moiety and α-naphthyl group were favorable for BACE-1 inhibition. Among
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Three series of 3-(2-aminoheterocycle)-4-benzyloxyphenylbenzamide derivatives, 2-aminooxazoles, 2-aminothiazoles, and 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizines were designed, synthesized and evaluated as β-secretase (BACE-1) inhibitors. Preliminary structure-activity relationships revealed that the existence of a 2-amino-6H-1,3,4-thiadizine moiety and α-naphthyl group were favorable for BACE-1 inhibition. Among the synthesized compounds, 5e exhibited the most potent BACE-1 inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 9.9 μΜ and it exhibited high brain uptake potential in Madin-Darby anine kidney cell lines (MDCK) and a Madin-Darby canine kidney-multidrug resistance 1 (MDCK-MDR1) model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Activity of Substituted Urea and Thiourea Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3562-3576; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033562
Received: 26 December 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of novel thiourea and urea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity. Triazole derivatives 3ae and 4ae were synthesized by reacting thiocarbohydrazide with thiourea and urea compounds 1ae
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A series of novel thiourea and urea derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal and larvicidal activity. Triazole derivatives 3ae and 4ae were synthesized by reacting thiocarbohydrazide with thiourea and urea compounds 1ae and 2ae, respectively, in a 130–140 °C oil bath. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. All compounds were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens, larvicidal and biting deterrent activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. and in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity against some human cell lines. Phomopis species were the most sensitive fungi to these compounds. Compounds 1b, 1c, 3a and 4e demonstrated selectively good activity against Phomopis obscurans and only 1b and 4e showed a similar level of activity against P. viticola. Compound 3d, with a LD50 value of 67.9 ppm, followed by 1c (LD50 = 118.8 ppm) and 3e (LD50 = 165.6 ppm), showed the highest toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Four of these compounds showed biting deterrent activity greater than solvent control, with the highest activity being seen for 1c, with a proportion not biting (PNB) value of 0.75, followed by 1e, 2b and 1a. No cytotoxicity was observed against the tested human cancer cell lines. No anti-inflammatory activity was observed against NF-kB dependent transcription induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in human chondrosarcoma cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cyclic versus Hemi-Bastadins. Pleiotropic Anti-Cancer Effects: from Apoptosis to Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Migratory Effects
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3543-3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033543
Received: 16 January 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bastadins-6, -9 and -16 isolated from the marine sponge Ianthella basta displayed in vitro cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effects in six human and mouse cancer cell lines. The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of these bastadins were similar in cancer cell lines sensitive to
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Bastadins-6, -9 and -16 isolated from the marine sponge Ianthella basta displayed in vitro cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effects in six human and mouse cancer cell lines. The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of these bastadins were similar in cancer cell lines sensitive to pro-apoptotic stimuli versus cancer cell lines displaying various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. While about ten times less toxic than the natural cyclic bastadins, the synthetically derived 5,5'-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB) displayed not only in vitro growth inhibitory activity in cancer cells but also anti-angiogenic properties. At a concentration of one tenth of its in vitro growth inhibitory concentration, DBHB displayed actual antimigratory effects in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells without any sign of cytotoxicity and/or growth inhibition. The serum concentration used in the cell culture media markedly influenced the DBHB-induced antimigratory effects in the B16F10 melanoma cell population. We are currently developing a specific inhalation formulation for DBHB enabling this compound to avoid plasmatic albumin binding through its direct delivery to the lungs to combat primary as well as secondary (metastases) tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3529-3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033529
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 9 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (995 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells
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Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1) increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2) scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3) reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Technologies for the Synthesis of mRNA-Encoding Libraries and Discovery of Bioactive Natural Product-Inspired Non-Traditional Macrocyclic Peptides
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3502-3528; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033502
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1092 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we discuss emerging technologies for drug discovery, which yields novel molecular scaffolds based on natural product-inspired non-traditional peptides expressed using the translation machinery. Unlike natural products, these technologies allow for constructing mRNA-encoding libraries of macrocyclic peptides containing non-canonical sidechains and
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In this review, we discuss emerging technologies for drug discovery, which yields novel molecular scaffolds based on natural product-inspired non-traditional peptides expressed using the translation machinery. Unlike natural products, these technologies allow for constructing mRNA-encoding libraries of macrocyclic peptides containing non-canonical sidechains and N-methyl-modified backbones. The complexity of sequence space in such libraries reaches as high as a trillion (>1012), affording initial hits of high affinity ligands against protein targets. Although this article comprehensively covers several related technologies, we discuss in greater detail the technical development and advantages of the Random non-standard Peptide Integration Discovery (RaPID) system, including the recent identification of inhibitors against various therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Protein and Peptide Synthesis)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Bioevaluation and Structural Study of Substituted Phthalazin-1(2H)-ones Acting as Antifungal Agents
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3479-3501; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033479
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty-five polysubstituted phthalazinone derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic and clinically important yeasts and filamentous fungi. Among them, the compound 4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-methylphthalazin-1(2H)-one (5) exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity against standardised strains of
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Twenty-five polysubstituted phthalazinone derivatives were synthesized and tested for their antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic and clinically important yeasts and filamentous fungi. Among them, the compound 4-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-methylphthalazin-1(2H)-one (5) exhibited a remarkable antifungal activity against standardised strains of dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, as well as against some clinical isolates. A physicochemical study performed on compound 5 revealed its conformational and electronic characteristics, providing us with useful data for the future design of novel related antifungal analogues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Ameliorative Effects of L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-Carboxylate on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3467-3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033467
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 31 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 18 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg
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The aim of the study was to investigate the ameliorative effects and the mechanism of action of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group, APAP only treated group, APAP + 25 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 50 mg/kg OTC, APAP + 100 mg/kg OTC, and APAP + 100 mg/kg N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a reference control group. OTC treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a dose dependent manner. OTC treatment was markedly increased glutathione (GSH) production and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity in a dose dependent manner. The contents of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in liver tissues were significantly decreased by administration of OTC and the inhibitory effect of OTC was similar to that of NAC. Moreover, OTC treatment on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity significantly reduced the formation of nitrotyrosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive areas of liver tissues in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the activity of caspase-3 in liver tissues was reduced by administration of OTC in a dose dependent manner. The ameliorative effects of OTC on APAP-induced liver damage in mice was similar to that of NAC. These results suggest that OTC has ameliorative effects on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice through anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Pregnane Steroids from a South China Sea Gorgonian Carijoa sp.
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3458-3466; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033458
Received: 30 January 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new pregnane steroid, 1, and three known analogues 24, have been isolated from a gorgonian Carijoa sp. collected from the South China Sea. The planar structure and relative configuration of 1 were elucidated from comprehensive spectroscopic data. Its
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A new pregnane steroid, 1, and three known analogues 24, have been isolated from a gorgonian Carijoa sp. collected from the South China Sea. The planar structure and relative configuration of 1 were elucidated from comprehensive spectroscopic data. Its absolute configuration was determined by application of the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402, with IC50 values of 9.33, 11.02 and 18.68 µM, respectively. Additionally, compound 1 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against Pseudomona puido, with a MIC value of 31 nM, which is approximately 5-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (MIC = 156 nM). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Article Synthesis and Trypanocidal Activity of Novel 2,4,5-Triaryl-N-Hydroxylimidazole Derivatives
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3445-3457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033445
Received: 7 February 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 8 March 2013 / Published: 15 March 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herein, we report the design, synthesis and trypanocidal activity of some novel trisubstituted imidazole derivatives. These heterocyclic derivatives were structurally planned by exploring the concept of molecular hybridisation between two arylhydrazones derived from megazol, which has potent trypanocidal activity. The trypanocidal activity of
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Herein, we report the design, synthesis and trypanocidal activity of some novel trisubstituted imidazole derivatives. These heterocyclic derivatives were structurally planned by exploring the concept of molecular hybridisation between two arylhydrazones derived from megazol, which has potent trypanocidal activity. The trypanocidal activity of these triarylimidazole derivatives was evaluated against infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and the derivative 2'-(4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-5'-phenyl-1H,3'H-2,4'-biimidazol-3'-ol showed moderate biological activity (IC50 = 23.9 µM) when compared to benznidazole, a standard trypanocidal drug. These compounds did not present cytotoxic effects at concentrations near the trypanocidal IC50, being considered a good starting point for the development of new anti-Chagas drug candidates. Full article
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Open AccessComment Remarks on Sasidharan et al. “Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage”. Molecules 2012, 17, 13937-13947
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3442-3444; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033442
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An article by Sasidharan et al. recently published in the journal Molecules [1] claimed to show the hepatoprotective effects of lantadene A against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice. While reading this paper, I came across certain points that need to be clarified and
[...] Read more.
An article by Sasidharan et al. recently published in the journal Molecules [1] claimed to show the hepatoprotective effects of lantadene A against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice. While reading this paper, I came across certain points that need to be clarified and taken up in the interest of science and other scientists working in this area. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of Mixed Micelles for Presentation of Building Blocks in a New Combinatorial Discovery Methodology: Proof-of-Concept Studies
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3427-3441; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033427
Received: 20 January 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a new method of combinatorial screening in which building blocks, instead of being linked together chemically, are placed on the surface of nanoparticles. Two- or three-dimensional structures form on the surface of these particles through the close approach of different building
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We describe a new method of combinatorial screening in which building blocks, instead of being linked together chemically, are placed on the surface of nanoparticles. Two- or three-dimensional structures form on the surface of these particles through the close approach of different building blocks, with sufficient flexibility to be able to adapt and interact with putative binding sites in biological systems. The particles assemble without the need for formation of chemical bonds, so libraries comprised of many structures can be prepared rapidly, with large quantities of material available for testing. Screening methods can include solid and solution-phase binding assays, or tissue culture models, for example looking for structures which can change the behaviour of cells in a disease-modifying manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts
Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3410-3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033410
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed
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Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants 2012)
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