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Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent
Department of General Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Department of Radiology Research, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2013; in revised form: 27 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 March 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Abstract: Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) is a synthetic derivative of oleanolic acid, a triterpene, with apoptosis-inducing activity in a wide range of cancer cells. Induction of apoptosis by CDDO-Me is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of telomerase activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in inhibition of telomerase by CDDO-me. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines with CDDO-Me induced the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions and inhibited the telomerase activity. Pretreatment of cells with N-acetylcycsteine, a general purpose antioxidant or overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) or superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) blocked the telomerase inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me. Furthermore, blocking ROS generation also prevented the inhibition of hTERT gene expression, hTERT protein production and expression of a number of hTERT–regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me (e.g., c-Myc, Sp1, NF-κB and p-Akt). Data also showed that Akt plays an important role in the activation of telomerase activity. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity by CDDO-Me is mediated through a ROS-dependent mechanism; however, more work is needed to fully understand the role of ROS in down-regulation of hTERT gene and hTERT-regulatory proteins by CDDO-Me.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer; CDDO-Me; ROS; hTERT; telomerase activity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Deeb, D.; Gao, X.; Liu, Y.; Varma, N.R.S.; Arbab, A.S.; Gautam, S.C. Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent. Molecules 2013, 18, 3250-3265.
Deeb D, Gao X, Liu Y, Varma NRS, Arbab AS, Gautam SC. Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent. Molecules. 2013; 18(3):3250-3265.
Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Liu, Yongbo; Varma, Nadimpalli R.S.; Arbab, Ali S.; Gautam, Subhash C. 2013. "Inhibition of Telomerase Activity by Oleanane Triterpenoid CDDO-Me in Pancreatic Cancer Cells is ROS-Dependent." Molecules 18, no. 3: 3250-3265.