Molecules 2013, 18(3), 3529-3542; doi:10.3390/molecules18033529
Article

Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation

1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1 and 1,* email
Received: 11 December 2012; in revised form: 9 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1) increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2) scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3) reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes.
Keywords: Terminalia chebula; oxygen-glucose deprivation; PC12 cells; ischemia
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [995 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 18 June 2014 20:03 CEST]
The original version is still available [994 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014 20:03 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Gaire, B.P.; Jamarkattel-Pandit, N.; Lee, D.; Song, J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.; Jung, S.; Choi, H.-Y.; Kim, H. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation. Molecules 2013, 18, 3529-3542.

AMA Style

Gaire BP, Jamarkattel-Pandit N, Lee D, Song J, Kim JY, Park J, Jung S, Choi H-Y, Kim H. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation. Molecules. 2013; 18(3):3529-3542.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaire, Bhakta P.; Jamarkattel-Pandit, Nirmala; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Ji Y.; Park, Juyeon; Jung, Soyoung; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol. 2013. "Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation." Molecules 18, no. 3: 3529-3542.

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert