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Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation
Department of Herbal Pharmacology, Kyung Hee University, College of Oriental Medicine, Seoul 130-701, Korea
Korea Institute of Science and Technology for Eastern Medicine (KISTEM), NeuMed Inc., Seoul 130-701, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2012; in revised form: 9 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
Abstract: Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. Cell survival was evaluated by a 2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide inhibition were measured by diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Griess reagent, respectively. We found that T. chebula extract: (1) increases the survival of cells subjected to OGD-R by 68%, and H2O2 by 91.4%; (2) scavenges the DPPH free radical by 96% and decreases malondialdehyde (MDA) levels from 237.0 ± 15.2% to 93.7 ± 2.2%; (3) reduces NO production and death rate of microglia cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These results suggest that T. chebula extract has the potential as a natural herbal medicine, to protect the cells from ischemic damage and the possible mechanism might be the inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory processes.
Keywords: Terminalia chebula; oxygen-glucose deprivation; PC12 cells; ischemia
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Gaire, B.P.; Jamarkattel-Pandit, N.; Lee, D.; Song, J.; Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.; Jung, S.; Choi, H.-Y.; Kim, H. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation. Molecules 2013, 18, 3529-3542.
Gaire BP, Jamarkattel-Pandit N, Lee D, Song J, Kim JY, Park J, Jung S, Choi H-Y, Kim H. Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation. Molecules. 2013; 18(3):3529-3542.
Gaire, Bhakta P.; Jamarkattel-Pandit, Nirmala; Lee, Donghun; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Ji Y.; Park, Juyeon; Jung, Soyoung; Choi, Ho-Young; Kim, Hocheol. 2013. "Terminalia chebula Extract Protects OGD-R Induced PC12 Cell Death and Inhibits LPS Induced Microglia Activation." Molecules 18, no. 3: 3529-3542.