Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing

A special issue of Inventions (ISSN 2411-5134). This special issue belongs to the section "Inventions and Innovation in Electrical Engineering/Energy/Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 25656

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Theoretical Radio Engineering Department, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Volokolamskoe shosse 4, 125993 Moscow, Russia
Interests: cyclostationary signal processing; spectral analysis; radar systems; applied artificial intelligence; decision-making support systems

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Napoli “Parthenope”, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, 80143 Napoli, Italy
Interests: nonstationary signal processing; cyclostationary signals and their generalizations; spectral analysis; stochastic process and time series models; Doppler effect; source location

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent decades, signal processing has become an essential part of the majority of the sciences and technologies which have formed the general outline of the modern anthroposphere, and it continues to be one of the driving forces shaping its further enhancement. The significant advance in signal processing taking place in the second half of the twentieth century was determined, to a large extent, by the rapid progress in the development of the systems designed for processing primarily electromagnetic signals. Nevertheless, the researchers in other engineering fields, e.g., mechanics, material sciences, biology, econometrics and astrophysics, have recently obtained many important results relating basically to signal processing. Moreover, due to the contemporary level of knowledge sharing, the models, methods or algorithms initially developed in one field can often be successfully adapted to solving the problems arising in other fields. Thus, signal processing can be unambiguously defined as an interdisciplinary research area providing its own indispensable knowledge and expertise to be exploited in many branches of applied science. Consequently, we are certain that signal processing might deserve dedicated consideration.

The Special Issue focuses on recent advances in signal processing. Its coverage extends from enhanced analytical models to final-stage implementations as ready-to-use customer solutions, yet it is primarily aimed at methods and algorithms in signal processing. The Special Issue is also open for new approaches and elaborated ideas establishing new trends in signal processing or supporting existing ones with contemporary theoretical justification. Applied studies proposed for mechanical, electrical, radio, electronic and biological systems are particularly welcomed as well as perspective techniques based on artificial intelligence principles, provided that the main emphasis remains on the signals. Although the majority of modern algorithms used in signal processing are expected to be digital, which means that all operations are carried out in discrete-time as time-series processing, the continuous-time description of the methods and especially the models is still meaningful since the signals remain analogue in the classical physical world.

We invite all interested researchers to submit their original research and review papers for publication in this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel concepts and approaches for the description of continuous-time signals and time-series;
  • Models for signals and processes generating them, especially the ones based on cyclostationary approach and its generalizations;
  • Signal processing in electronic systems;
  • Signal processing in radar and communication systems;
  • Signal processing in electromagnetic measurements and electromagnetic compatibility problems;
  • Signal processing in electric machines and their parts, especially ones exploiting superconductivity;
  • Signal processing in mechanical systems, especially with rotary and vibrating parts;
  • Signal processing in biology and medicine;
  • Signal processing in astrophysics;
  • Time-series processing methods and algorithms in economics and management sciences;
  • Signal processing algorithms based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques and Machine Learning (ML) principles;
  • Data-driven and knowledge-driven signal processing;
  • Implementation of signal processing algorithms, especially on versatile and low-cost hardware platforms.

Dr. Timofey Shevgunov
Prof. Dr. Antonio Napolitano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Inventions is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • signal processing
  • digital signal processing
  • time-series processing
  • non-stationary processes
  • cyclostationary processes
  • radar
  • communication
  • electronics
  • electromagnetic compatibility
  • mechanical systems
  • superconductivity
  • artificial intelligence
  • machine learning
  • software defined radio

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
An Approach for Using a Tensor-Based Method for Mobility-User Pattern Determining
by Ivan P. Ashaev, Ildar A. Safiullin, Artur K. Gaysin, Adel F. Nadeev and Alexey A. Korobkov
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010001 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Modern mobile networks exhibit a complex heterogeneous structure. To enhance the Quality of Service (QoS) in these networks, intelligent control mechanisms should be implemented. These functions are based on the processing of large amounts of data and feature extraction. One such feature is [...] Read more.
Modern mobile networks exhibit a complex heterogeneous structure. To enhance the Quality of Service (QoS) in these networks, intelligent control mechanisms should be implemented. These functions are based on the processing of large amounts of data and feature extraction. One such feature is information about user mobility. However, directly determining user mobility remains challenging. To address this issue, this study proposes an approach based on multi-linear data processing. The user mobility is proposed to determine, using the multi-linear data, about the changing of the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR). SINR varies individually for each user over time, relative to the network’s base stations. It is natural to represent these data as a tensor. A tensor-based preprocessing step employing Canonical Polyadic Decomposition (CPD) is proposed to extract user mobility information and reduce the data volume. In the next step, using the DBSCAN algorithm, users are clustered according to their mobility patterns. Subsequently, users are clustered based on their mobility patterns using the DBSCAN algorithm. The proposed approach is evaluated utilizing data from Network Simulator 3 (NS-3), which simulates a portion of the mobile network. The results of processing these data using the proposed method demonstrate superior performance in determining user mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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17 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
Using Functionally Redundant Inertial Measurement Units to Increase Reliability and Ensure Fault Tolerance
by Ivan M. Kuznetsov, Konstantin K. Veremeenko, Maxim V. Zharkov and Andrey N. Pronkin
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060159 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1675
Abstract
This paper aims to assess the possibility of using functionally redundant inertial units to solve problems of increasing reliability and ensuring the fault tolerance of the various classes and purposes of aircraft navigation systems. We present the results of studying failure detection methods [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess the possibility of using functionally redundant inertial units to solve problems of increasing reliability and ensuring the fault tolerance of the various classes and purposes of aircraft navigation systems. We present the results of studying failure detection methods to improve the accuracy and reliability of a strapdown functionally redundant inertial unit. The resulting structural redundancy of the strapdown inertial measurement unit is designed to increase the fault tolerance and accuracy of strapdown inertial navigation systems. The methods for detecting sensor failures in functionally redundant inertial units are based on the use of the equations of functionally redundant inertial unit compliance to nominal requirements for the accuracy of measuring the input action vector. To describe the methods for detecting and eliminating failed sensor and algorithm designs based on them, we gave the mathematical models of the measurement vector of functionally redundant inertial units concerning the measured vector and the error identification condition, including the residual of the matching equations with the size due to the level of redundancy, determining the total number of matching equations. The main criterion for determining a failed sensor is non-compliance with the nominal value of the residual included in a certain number of matching equations of the information received from such meters. The developed algorithms are examined using simulation methods. The study of the selected structure of the functionally redundant inertial units shows that the proposed approaches are efficient. Also, we manage to identify the main characteristics of the algorithms for detecting sensor failures that are structurally a part of the functionally redundant inertial units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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19 pages, 21213 KiB  
Article
Global Navigation Satellite System Spoofing Detection in Inertial Satellite Navigation Systems
by Maksim Zharkov, Konstantin Veremeenko, Ivan Kuznetsov and Andrei Pronkin
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060158 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1703
Abstract
The susceptibility of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) to interference significantly limits the possibility of their use. From the standpoint of possible consequences, the most dangerous interference is the so-called spoofing. Simultaneously, in most cases of GNSS use, an inertial navigation system (INS) [...] Read more.
The susceptibility of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) to interference significantly limits the possibility of their use. From the standpoint of possible consequences, the most dangerous interference is the so-called spoofing. Simultaneously, in most cases of GNSS use, an inertial navigation system (INS) or an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) is also present on the board of mobile objects. In this regard, the research goal is to assess the possibility of detecting GNSS spoofing in inertial satellite navigation systems. This paper examines the method for detecting GNSS spoofing by combining a pair of commercially available GNSS receivers and antennas with an INS or AHRS. The method is based on a comparison of the double differences of GNSS carrier phase measurements performed by receivers under conditions of resolved integer ambiguity and the values of the range double differences predicted using an INS. GNSS carrier phase integer ambiguity can be resolved using a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) or AHRS data. The mathematical model of GNSS phase difference measurements and the SINS-predicted satellite range differences model are given. The proposed algorithm calculates the moving average of the residuals between the SINS-predicted satellite range double differences and the measured GNSS carrier phase double differences. The primary criterion for spoofing detection is the specified threshold excess of the moving average of the double difference residuals. Experimental studies are performed using simulation and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The experimental results allow us to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach and estimate the potential characteristics of the spoofing detection algorithm based on it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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23 pages, 12184 KiB  
Article
Development of the Phaseless Calibration Algorithm for a Digital Antenna Array
by Elena Dobychina, Mikhail Snastin, Vladimir Savchenko and Timofey Shevgunov
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060155 - 11 Dec 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
In this paper, we will discuss a calibration algorithm for a digital antenna array that diagnoses its real performance. It can be applied at such stages of the antenna system life cycle as design, tuning, and especially maintenance. A calibration implementation using a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we will discuss a calibration algorithm for a digital antenna array that diagnoses its real performance. It can be applied at such stages of the antenna system life cycle as design, tuning, and especially maintenance. A calibration implementation using a scalar method for a multi-beam digital antenna array is proposed and investigated. On-the-fly calibration ensures a continuous improvement in beam pointing accuracy by reducing internal errors in the receiving (transmitting) channels. The purpose of the study is to experimentally examine the capabilities of digital beamforming to increase the angle-of-arrival estimation accuracy. A simulation model of the receiving antenna was created in an anechoic chamber with a planar antenna positioner. The possibility of precise estimation of the direction of arrival using the digital beamforming with electronic scanning was demonstrated. The proposed simulation model made it possible to observe the convergence of the antenna array calibration process using the proposed method for various errors in the signal paths, as well as different signal-to-noise ratios. It has been proven that even under adverse conditions early in the calibration algorithm, the phase error detection converges with high accuracy, and its value decreases uniformly even to the fractions of an angular degree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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23 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Detectors in the Fraction-of-Time Probability Framework
by Dominique Dehay, Jacek Leśkow, Antonio Napolitano and Timofey Shevgunov
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060152 - 29 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
The signal detection problem for cyclostationary signals is addressed within the fraction-of-time probability framework, where statistical functions are constructed starting from a single time series, without introducing the concept of stochastic process. Single-cycle detectors and quadratic-form detectors based on measurements of the Fourier [...] Read more.
The signal detection problem for cyclostationary signals is addressed within the fraction-of-time probability framework, where statistical functions are constructed starting from a single time series, without introducing the concept of stochastic process. Single-cycle detectors and quadratic-form detectors based on measurements of the Fourier coefficients of the almost-periodically time-variant cumulative distribution and probability density functions are proposed. The adopted fraction-of-time approach provides both methodological and implementation advantages for the proposed detectors. For single-cycle detectors, the decision statistic is a function of the received signal and the threshold is derived using side data under the null hypothesis. For quadratic-form detectors, the decision statistic can be expressed as a function of the received signal without using side data, at the cost of some performance degradation. The threshold can be derived analytically. Performance analysis is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations in severe noise and interference environments, where the proposed detectors provide better performance with respect to the analogous detectors based on second- and higher-order cyclic statistic measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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17 pages, 4644 KiB  
Article
Model Problems on Oscillations of Mechanical and Biological Membranes
by Yury Kostikov and Aleksandr Romanenkov
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060139 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Various models of membrane oscillations emerging in the theory of elasticity of mechanical systems, biomechanics of the internal ear of vertebrata, and in the theory of electrical circuits are discussed in the article. The considered oscillations have different natures, but their mathematical models [...] Read more.
Various models of membrane oscillations emerging in the theory of elasticity of mechanical systems, biomechanics of the internal ear of vertebrata, and in the theory of electrical circuits are discussed in the article. The considered oscillations have different natures, but their mathematical models are described using similar initial boundary value problems for the second-order hyperbolic equation with the nontrivial boundary condition. The differential equations in these problems are the same. Thus, for example, the model of voltage distribution in the telegraph line emerges for the one-dimensional equation of oscillations. The model of oscillations of a circular homogeneous solid membrane, a membrane with a hole, and the model of gas oscillations in a sphere and spherical region emerge for the two-dimensional and three-dimensional operators, but take into account the radial symmetry of oscillations. The model problem on membrane oscillation can be considered as the problem on ear drum membrane oscillations. The unified approach to reducing the corresponding problems to the initial boundary value problem with zero boundary conditions is suggested. The technique of formulating the solution in the form of a Fourier series using eigenfunctions of the corresponding Sturm–Liouville problem is described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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21 pages, 1635 KiB  
Article
Estimation of the Achievable Performance of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Optimal Link State Routing
by Gennady Kazakov
Inventions 2023, 8(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8050108 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
The paper explores the challenges of constructing self-organizing wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) utilizing Optimal Link State Routing (OLSR) with MPR (MultiPoint Relay) optimization and quality control through the RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol). Analytical expressions are presented for calculating the achievable network [...] Read more.
The paper explores the challenges of constructing self-organizing wireless mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) utilizing Optimal Link State Routing (OLSR) with MPR (MultiPoint Relay) optimization and quality control through the RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol). Analytical expressions are presented for calculating the achievable network characteristics, including route acquisition time, network efficiency (routing overhead), packet transmission delay (end-to-end delay), and signal propagation losses between nodes assuming no packet collisions within the network nodes. The possibility of network scalability is analyzed depending on the scenarios of operation and the number of network nodes. Recommendations for the construction and scalability of self-organizing wireless networks are formulated based on the conducted evaluations and calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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15 pages, 4638 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Efficiency of Various Receipting Multiple Access Methods with Acknowledgement in IoT Networks
by Vyacheslav V. Borodin, Valentin E. Kolesnichenko and Vyacheslav A. Shevtsov
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040105 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1225
Abstract
An Internet of things (IoT) network is a distributed set of “smart” sensors, interconnected via a radio channel. The basic method of accessing the radio channels for these networks is Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), in which access is carried out on [...] Read more.
An Internet of things (IoT) network is a distributed set of “smart” sensors, interconnected via a radio channel. The basic method of accessing the radio channels for these networks is Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), in which access is carried out on the basis of contention, and confirmation of the correct reception of the packet is achieved using a receipt. If the sizes of information packets are small and comparable to the sizes of receipts, then the transmission of receipts requires a significant bandwidth of the channel, which reduces the efficiency of the network. This problem exists not only for IoT networks but also for monitoring systems, operational management of fast processes, telemetry, short messaging and many other applications. Therefore, an urgent task is to develop effective methods of multiple random access in the transmission of short information packets, the size of which is comparable to the size of receipts. To solve this problem, the authors proposed modifications of CSMA/CA random access in which, when packet collisions are detected, a diagnostic message (DM) is generated and transmitted in the broadcast mode. Based on simulation modeling, it is shown that in a wide range of network loads, the proposed random access options provide an increase in network capacity (the number of connected subscribers) of 1.5–2 times compared to the basic CSMA/CA access method when the size of the information packet is an order of magnitude larger than the size of receipts. The variant of access without acknowledgment is also considered, in which, as shown by the simulation results, at sufficiently large loads, the network can go into an unstable state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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23 pages, 5584 KiB  
Article
Continuum Logic of Control Signals in Analog Cyber–Physical Nets
by Nikolay Dembitsky
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040101 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 932
Abstract
The use of embedded processors is the most promising direction in the development of automatic control systems. The article is devoted to analog models and technical solutions that allow continuous analysis of information in a technical system in order to synthesize control signals. [...] Read more.
The use of embedded processors is the most promising direction in the development of automatic control systems. The article is devoted to analog models and technical solutions that allow continuous analysis of information in a technical system in order to synthesize control signals. Technical solutions are obtained on the basis of continuum logic methods, which aim to increase the speed of embedded computing networks, reduce power consumption, and unify the element base of analog processors. The effect of high speed is achieved due to the transition from sequential digital calculations to parallel synthesis of analog control signals. Examples of the implementation of schemes for the synthesis of control commands using the developed models of logical operations are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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15 pages, 2855 KiB  
Communication
Performance Evaluation of Photonics-Based Coherent MIMO Radar Systems for Maritime Surveillance
by Malik Muhammad Haris Amir, Salvatore Maresca, Gaurav Pandey, Antonio Malacarne, Antonella Bogoni and Mirco Scaffardi
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040099 - 7 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars offer significant advantages over conventional standalone radars in terms of target detection and localization capabilities. However, to fully exploit their potential, such systems require excellent time and phase synchronization among the central unit and the radar heads. Only recently, [...] Read more.
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars offer significant advantages over conventional standalone radars in terms of target detection and localization capabilities. However, to fully exploit their potential, such systems require excellent time and phase synchronization among the central unit and the radar heads. Only recently, thanks to microwave photonics (MWP) techniques, it has been possible to develop the first coherent MIMO radar demonstrators. In this paper, a simulation tool in MATLAB programming language is proposed to model coherent MIMO radars based on MWP techniques in maritime surveillance applications. Moreover, a novel approach for estimating the radar cross section of extended maritime targets is presented. The system performance in co-located and distributed MIMO configuration, as well as in single- and multi-band operations, is evaluated by means of relevant key performance indicators (KPIs). Simulations are carried out in two close-to-reality scenarios. In the first, a co-located MIMO radar is mounted on top of a patrolling vessel. In the second, a distributed MIMO radar is deployed inside a port. The proposed KPIs are analyzed in terms of both geometric and frequency diversities of the system, laying the foundations for general system optimization criteria valid in any given surveillance application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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17 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Management of Hardware Vulnerabilities in the Life Cycle Stages of Microprocessors and Computers
by Ignat Bychkov, Irina Mikhailova, Pavel Korenev, Vitaliy Pikov and Anatoly Ryapukhin
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040098 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
This article discusses the topical issues of managing information security vulnerabilities in the life cycle stages of processors and computer equipment. An analysis of the experience of identifying vulnerabilities in the course of the joint design of the processor, computing module and computing [...] Read more.
This article discusses the topical issues of managing information security vulnerabilities in the life cycle stages of processors and computer equipment. An analysis of the experience of identifying vulnerabilities in the course of the joint design of the processor, computing module and computing complex was carried out. A number of actions have been developed and presented to ensure the control of hardware vulnerabilities in the development stage. The use of the binary translation technology of the Elbrus platform is proposed to prevent the execution of malicious software. A method has been developed to eliminate vulnerabilities in computer equipment for automated systems used for various purposes by using the Lintel binary translation system component. An experiment is described, the purpose of which was to successfully exploit the Meltdown vulnerability on a computer with an Elbrus processor. The experiment showed that, due to the peculiarities of the microarchitecture of Elbrus processors, the exploitation of Meltdown-type vulnerabilities is impossible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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13 pages, 2149 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Unmanned-Aerial-Vehicle-Integrated Control System Efficiency on the Basis of Generalized Multiplicative Criterion
by Viktor Vititin, Maksim Kalyagin and Valentin Kolesnichenko
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040094 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-integrated control system is a set of functionally independent subsystems of the ground and space segments interacting with each other under the conditions of the stochastic nature of the external environment. There is an approach to evaluating its effectiveness [...] Read more.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-integrated control system is a set of functionally independent subsystems of the ground and space segments interacting with each other under the conditions of the stochastic nature of the external environment. There is an approach to evaluating its effectiveness based on a generalized multiplicative criterion, which takes into account the features of this system to the maximum extent. It is proposed to single out two particular criteria that characterize the reliability of a UAV and the effectiveness of the control system in relation to it. At the same time, the generalized criterion is a multiplicative convolution based not on the triangular-norm (t-norm) of the particular criterion, but of its correspondence functions, which in a certain way reflect its significance. It is shown that in the particular case of linear dependence of the correspondence functions, the generalized criterion coincides with the classical multiplicative convolution in the form of product of event probabilities. The proposed approach with minimal changes can be adapted to assess the effectiveness of data management systems in heterogeneous networks, process control systems, projects, logistics, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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20 pages, 19038 KiB  
Article
The Use of Computer Vision to Improve the Affinity of Rootstock-Graft Combinations and Identify Diseases of Grape Seedlings
by Marina Rudenko, Yurij Plugatar, Vadim Korzin, Anatoliy Kazak, Nadezhda Gallini and Natalia Gorbunova
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040092 - 19 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1392
Abstract
This study explores the application of computer vision for enhancing the selection of rootstock-graft combinations and detecting diseases in grape seedlings. Computer vision has various applications in viticulture, but publications and research have not reported the use of computer vision in rootstock-graft selection, [...] Read more.
This study explores the application of computer vision for enhancing the selection of rootstock-graft combinations and detecting diseases in grape seedlings. Computer vision has various applications in viticulture, but publications and research have not reported the use of computer vision in rootstock-graft selection, which defines the novelty of this research. This paper presents elements of the technology for applying computer vision to rootstock-graft combinations and includes an analysis of grape seedling cuttings. This analysis allows for a more accurate determination of the compatibility between rootstock and graft, as well as the detection of potential seedling diseases. The utilization of computer vision to automate the grafting process of grape cuttings offers significant benefits in terms of increased efficiency, improved quality, and reduced costs. This technology can replace manual labor and ensure economic efficiency and reliability, among other advantages. It also facilitates monitoring the development of seedlings to determine the appropriate planting time. Image processing algorithms play a vital role in automatically determining seedling characteristics such as trunk diameter and the presence of any damage. Furthermore, computer vision can aid in the identification of diseases and defects in seedlings, which is crucial for assessing their overall quality. The automation of these processes offers several advantages, including increased efficiency, improved quality, and reduced costs through the reduction of manual labor and waste. To fulfill these objectives, a unique robotic assembly line is planned for the grafting of grape cuttings. This line will be equipped with two conveyor belts, a delta robot, and a computer vision system. The use of computer vision in automating the grafting process for grape cuttings offers significant benefits in terms of efficiency, quality improvement, and cost reduction. By incorporating image processing algorithms and advanced robotics, this technology has the potential to revolutionize the viticulture industry. Thanks to training a computer vision system to analyze data on rootstock and graft grape varieties, it is possible to reduce the number of defects by half. The implementation of a semi-automated computer vision system can improve crossbreeding efficiency by 90%. Reducing the time spent on pairing selection is also a significant advantage. While manual selection takes between 1 and 2 min, reducing the time to 30 s using the semi-automated system, and the prospect of further automation reducing the time to 10–15 s, will significantly increase the productivity and efficiency of the process. In addition to the aforementioned benefits, the integration of computer vision technology in grape grafting processes brings several other advantages. One notable advantage is the increased accuracy and precision in pairing selection. Computer vision algorithms can analyze a wide range of factors, including size, shape, color, and structural characteristics, to make more informed decisions when matching rootstock and graft varieties. This can lead to better compatibility and improved overall grafting success rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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10 pages, 2965 KiB  
Article
Brain–Computer-Interface-Based Smart-Home Interface by Leveraging Motor Imagery Signals
by Simona Cariello, Dario Sanalitro, Alessandro Micali, Arturo Buscarino and Maide Bucolo
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040091 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1851
Abstract
In this work, we propose a brain–computer-interface (BCI)-based smart-home interface which leverages motor imagery (MI) signals to operate home devices in real-time. The idea behind MI-BCI is that different types of MI activities will activate various brain regions. Therefore, after recording the user’s [...] Read more.
In this work, we propose a brain–computer-interface (BCI)-based smart-home interface which leverages motor imagery (MI) signals to operate home devices in real-time. The idea behind MI-BCI is that different types of MI activities will activate various brain regions. Therefore, after recording the user’s electroencephalogram (EEG) data, two approaches, i.e., Regularized Common Spatial Pattern (RCSP) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), analyze these data to classify users’ imagined tasks. In such a way, the user can perform the intended action. In the proposed framework, EEG signals were recorded by using the EMOTIV helmet and OpenVibe, a free and open-source platform that has been utilized for EEG signal feature extraction and classification. After being classified, such signals are then converted into control commands, and the open communication protocol for building automation KNX (“Konnex”) is proposed for the tasks’ execution, i.e., the regulation of two switching devices. The experimental results from the training and testing stages provide evidence of the effectiveness of the users’ intentions classification, which has subsequently been used to operate the proposed home automation system, allowing users to operate two light bulbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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21 pages, 8007 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model for Evaluating the Reliability of Vias and Plated Through-Hole Pads on PCBs
by Maksim A. Korobkov, Fedor V. Vasilyev and Olga V. Khomutskaya
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030077 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Currently, there is a need to increase the density of interconnections on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Does this mean that the only option for quality PCB manufacturing is to proportionally increase precision of equipment, or is there another way? One of the main [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a need to increase the density of interconnections on printed circuit boards (PCBs). Does this mean that the only option for quality PCB manufacturing is to proportionally increase precision of equipment, or is there another way? One of the main constraints on increasing the density of PCB interconnections is posed by the transition holes. As the number of conductive layers increases, the number of vias increases and they cover a significant space on the PCB. On the other hand, reducing the size of the vias is limited by the capability of spatial alignment of the PCB stack during manufacturing. There are standards that set limits for the design of contact pads on a PCB (IPC-A-600G, IPC-6012B). However, depending on the precision of production, the contact pads may be of poor quality. This raises the issue of determining the reliability of a contact pad with defined parameters at the design stage, taking into account manufacturing capabilities. This research proposes an analytical method for evaluation of reliability of a via or plated through-hole based on calculation of its probability of production in accordance with the current standards. On the basis of the method, a model was developed both for the case of a contact pad without any conductors connected to it (nonfunctional contact pad) and for the real case with a connected conductor. The model estimates the probability of making an acceptable via for a given reliability class depending on parameters such as the conductor width (minimum permissible and usable), drilled hole diameter, and pad diameter, as well as the accuracy of the drilling operation. The analysis of the modeling results showed that for the real case, a reduction in the reliability class would insignificantly affect the probability of making an acceptable via due to the tight limitation on the connection place of the conductor and the contact pad. In conclusion, we propose an algorithm for determining the optimal parameters of teardrops to minimize the negative impact of the conductor on the reliability of the vias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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24 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
The Phasor Diagram of a Superconducting Synchronous Electrical Machine
by Roman Ildusovich Ilyasov
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030068 - 8 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
This paper describes a universal method proposed by the author for the evaluative analytical calculation of the main parameters of synchronous electrical machines, including superconducting ones. Traditional methods for analytical calculation of parameters to build a phasor diagram of electrical machines require a [...] Read more.
This paper describes a universal method proposed by the author for the evaluative analytical calculation of the main parameters of synchronous electrical machines, including superconducting ones. Traditional methods for analytical calculation of parameters to build a phasor diagram of electrical machines require a calculation of all dimensions of the active zone, tooth-slot zone and frontal parts of armature windings. All sizes and local states of magnetic circuit saturation are necessary for the calculation of magnetic conductivities. Traditional analytical methods use, among other things, empirical formulas and non-physical coefficients and allow one to calculate only standard machines with classic tooth-slot zones and armature winding types. As a result of drawing a phasor diagram using traditional methods, the angle between the electromotive force and voltage is calculated, which is the machine’s internal parameter and has no major significance for users. The application of modern computer programs for simulation requires a preliminary analytical calculation in order to obtain all dimensions of the three-dimensional model. FEM simulation programs are expensive, require expensive high-performance computers and highly paid skilled personnel. Fast analytical techniques are also required to assess the correctness of the obtained automatic computer simulation results. The proposed analytical method makes it possible to quickly obtain all the main parameters of a newly designed machine (including superconducting ones and those of non-traditional design) without a detailed calculation of the dimensions of the tooth-slot zone and armature end-windings. The characteristic values of load angles are set according to the results of simple calculations, and the desired values, obtained via plotting, represent the inductive resistances of armature winding and inductive voltage drop across it. Results of practical significance, calculated from the voltage diagram, are as follows: the inductor’s magnetomotive force necessary to maintain the nominal load voltage value, regardless of the magnitude (including double overload) and type of the connected load, or the main dimensions of the active zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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