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Air, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 7 articles

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5 pages, 1685 KiB  
Editorial
Air—A New Open Access Journal
by Ling Tim Wong
Air 2023, 1(1), 89-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010007 - 9 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2108
Abstract
Air (ISSN 2813-4168) is a new peer-reviewed, international, open access online academic journal for scientists in different disciplines related to air’s composition and impacts [...] Full article
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9 pages, 244 KiB  
Review
The Greenhouse Gas Crisis and the Logistic Growth Curve
by Steven A. Kolmes
Air 2023, 1(1), 80-88; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010006 - 2 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1782
Abstract
The greatest challenge of the coming century will be the consequences of an imbalanced atmosphere. Currently, projections of global heating due to an increasingly imbalanced atmosphere are dire, but they underestimate the near-term heating impacts of the growing concentrations of methane. Industrially mediated [...] Read more.
The greatest challenge of the coming century will be the consequences of an imbalanced atmosphere. Currently, projections of global heating due to an increasingly imbalanced atmosphere are dire, but they underestimate the near-term heating impacts of the growing concentrations of methane. Industrially mediated carbon capture and storage sometimes gets raised as a promising solution on the CO2 front, but it is presently commercially inviable. Despite these facts, we nonetheless need to act globally to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, although our increasingly separate information ecosystems make finding a way to express the reality of the atmospheric imbalance crisis to a wide audience daunting. One approach to presenting the atmospheric imbalances leading to global heating is to strip the discussion down initially to its bare bones with a sharp focus on the variables of the logistic growth equation. Although virtually anything can be politicized, the logistic growth equation’s variables are at least apolitical in their origin. After examining those variables, we can proceed to focus on density-dependent mortality factors (DDMFs) and their relationship to visible climatic changes driven by atmospheric imbalances. Both the Global North and the Global South need to do all that we do to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas accumulation, reducing DDMFs, while paying careful attention to Indigenous rights and to the need for global gender equity, so that our efforts to control DDMFs do not produce a new expression of colonialism. Full article
11 pages, 4827 KiB  
Article
Scrubber Filter in the Phosphate Fertilizer Factory Reduces Fluorine Emission and Accumulation in Corn
by Gleidson Junior Silva and Risely Ferraz-Almeida
Air 2023, 1(1), 69-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010005 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2443
Abstract
Fluorine (F) produced from the fertilizer factory occurs in the process of phosphate fertilizer production, using sulfur and phosphate rocks as raw materials. Technologies to control atmospheric pollution with F should be adopted to reduce the impact on agricultural production. This study has [...] Read more.
Fluorine (F) produced from the fertilizer factory occurs in the process of phosphate fertilizer production, using sulfur and phosphate rocks as raw materials. Technologies to control atmospheric pollution with F should be adopted to reduce the impact on agricultural production. This study has the hypothesis that the emission of F, derived from the chimneys of fertilizer factories, is influencing the quality of corn (Zea mays L.) and increasing the F levels in the soil and plants. The objective of the study was to monitor the contents of F in corn leaves and soil in properties located close to the fertilizer production industry (between 1.5 and 2.0 km) before and after the installation of scrubber filters in the chimneys of the factory. A field study was carried out during the 2020/2021 harvest to evaluate the contents of F in corn plants and soil. Results showed that the scrubber filter installation represented a F reduction average of 92% in leaves comparing the average before the scrubber filter installation. Corn showed symptoms of F toxicity, such as leaf chlorosis, caused by the disintegration of chloroplasts, inhibition of photosynthesis, and others. In addition, there was a reduction of 40% (from the first to the second collecting) and 75% (from the first to the third collecting) in the levels of F in the soil after the scrubber filter installation. Based on the results, we conclude that the implementation of a scrubber filter is an optimal alternative to reduce F levels in corn leaves and the soil in properties located close to a fertilizer factory. Full article
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14 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution Tolerance Index and Heavy Metals Accumulation of Tree Species for Sustainable Environmental Management in Megacity of Lahore
by Rab Nawaz, Muhammad Aslam, Iqra Nasim, Muhammad Atif Irshad, Sajjad Ahmad, Maria Latif and Fida Hussain
Air 2023, 1(1), 55-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010004 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8742
Abstract
Urban air and soil quality has been deteriorating during the past few years due to urbanization, industrialization and increased number of vehicles. The goal of the current study was to assess the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and heavy metal absorption (Pb, Cd, [...] Read more.
Urban air and soil quality has been deteriorating during the past few years due to urbanization, industrialization and increased number of vehicles. The goal of the current study was to assess the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and heavy metal absorption (Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni) potential by ten selected trees planted along the roadside in the metropolitan city of Lahore, Pakistan. APTI was estimated on the basis of biochemical parameters (chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid, pH and relative water contents) of plant extract, while heavy metals (HMs) accumulation potential was measured by a digestion method. The highest APTI was estimated in P. longifolia (78.9), followed by A. scholarils (75.9) and M. indica (71.9). Overall, these three species have significant closeness among the higher pollution-tolerance results. The poor APTI result was determined in F. religiosa (19.5) and E. citriodora (14.9). The highest Pb contents were observed in P. longifolia and M. indica i.e., 135 and 132 mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, the highest Zn contents were found in P. longifolia and S. cumini with 130 and 132 mg/kg, respectively. The Ni concentration was observed highest in P. longifolia (34 mg/kg), but in the remaining species, it is almost the same trend of Ni accumulation. Combining these trees can be useful for fostering green-belt growth along roadsides to reduce air and soil pollution and achieve environmental sustainability. But unfortunately, these species are not planted well across the roadside as they have very little biodiversity index, as compared to other species. These species should be planted in urban areas to enhance biodiversity in the urban ecosystem and make them sustainable cities and communities. Full article
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18 pages, 1158 KiB  
Review
Ammonia Cycling and Emerging Secondary Aerosols from Arable Agriculture: A European and Irish Perspective
by Vivien Pohl, Alan Gilmer, Stig Hellebust, Eugene McGovern, John Cassidy, Vivienne Byers, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Finnian Neeson and David J. O’Connor
Air 2023, 1(1), 37-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010003 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
Ammonia (NH3) is a naturally occurring, highly reactive and soluble alkaline trace gas, originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is present throughout the biosphere, yet plays a complicated role in atmospheric acid–base reactions resulting in the formation of inorganic [...] Read more.
Ammonia (NH3) is a naturally occurring, highly reactive and soluble alkaline trace gas, originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is present throughout the biosphere, yet plays a complicated role in atmospheric acid–base reactions resulting in the formation of inorganic secondary inorganic aerosols (SIAs). While the general mechanisms are recognised, factors controlling the reactions leading to SIA formation are less explored. This review summarises the current knowledge of NH3 sources, emission and deposition processes and atmospheric reactions leading to the formation of SIA. Brief summaries of NH3 and SIA long-range transport and trans-boundary pollution, a discussion of precursor species to SIAs (other than NH3), abiotic and biotic controls and state-of-the-art methods of measurement and modelling of pollutants are also included. In Ireland, NH3 concentrations remained below National and European Union limits, until 2016 when a rise in emissions was seen due to agricultural expansion. However, due to a lack of continuous monitoring, source and receptor relationships are difficult to establish, including the appointment of precursor gases and aerosols to source regions and industries. Additionally, the lack of continuous monitoring leads to over- and underestimations of precursor gases present, resulting in inaccuracies of the estimated importance of NH3 as a precursor gas for SIA. These gaps in data can hinder the accuracy and precision of forecasting models. Deposition measurements and the modelling of NH3 present another challenge. Direct source measurements are required for the parameterization of bi-directional fluxes; however, high-quality data inputs can be limited by local micrometeorological conditions, or the types of instrumentation used. Long-term measurements remain challenging for both aerosols and precursor gases over larger areas or arduous terrains. Full article
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23 pages, 512 KiB  
Review
Non-Road Mobile Machinery Emissions and Regulations: A Review
by Rita Hagan, Emma Markey, Jerry Clancy, Mark Keating, Aoife Donnelly, David J. O’Connor, Liam Morrison and Eoin J. McGillicuddy
Air 2023, 1(1), 14-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010002 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6032
Abstract
Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) incorporate a wide range of machinery, with or without bodywork and wheels, and are installed with a combustion engine and not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road. These are used in many different sectors including construction, [...] Read more.
Non-Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) incorporate a wide range of machinery, with or without bodywork and wheels, and are installed with a combustion engine and not intended for carrying passengers or goods on the road. These are used in many different sectors including construction, agriculture, forestry, mining, local authorities, airport and port ground operations, railways, inland waterways and within the household and gardening sector. This article presents a review of the state of knowledge with regard to non-road mobile machinery, particularly focusing on their regulation and the atmospheric emissions associated with them. This was undertaken as there is currently a lack of this information available in the literature, which is an oversight due to the potential for Non-Road Mobile Machinery to form a greater part of atmospheric emissions in the future, as other areas of emissions are tackled by regulations, as is outlined in the article. Emissions such as particulate matter (PM), carbon oxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur oxides (SOx) from NRMM contribute considerably to total emissions released into the air. NRMM are diverse in application, engine type and fuel use, and are therefore difficult to categorise. This leads to numerous issues when it comes to the control and regulation of their emissions. The most recent European and international regulations are outlined in this article. Due to the divergent nature of NRMM, their emissions profiles are highly varied, and in-use emissions monitoring is challenging. This has led to a lack of data and inaccuracies in the estimation of total emissions and emission inventories. It was assumed in the past that emissions from non-road sources did not contribute as significantly to total emissions as those from on-road sources. This assumption was partly due to the difficulty in gathering relevant data, and it was disproven in the 1990s by studies in The Netherlands, Finland and Sweden. It is now understood that NRMM will eventually surpass on-road vehicles as the leading source of mobile pollution due to the continuing efforts to reduce emissions from other sources. Many states worldwide gather emissions data from NRMM, and EU member states are required to report their emissions. As of January 2017, a new European regulation establishing limits for gaseous and particulate pollutants from NRMM applies, and this regulation also defines administrative and technical requirements for EU approval. The exact number of NRMM and the total amount of fuel they use is currently not known. In Ireland, for example, their fuel use has been reported under stationary boilers and engines. However, this results in the underestimation of emissions of some pollutants (NOx in particular) because emissions of air pollutants tend to be higher in mobile than in stationary machinery. Full article
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13 pages, 3345 KiB  
Article
Minimal PM2.5 Impact Observed in Communities Near Large, Recurring, Non-Independence Day Festivals with Fireworks Displays
by Victoria A. Lang and Jonathan D. W. Kahl
Air 2023, 1(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/air1010001 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from fireworks displays have been linked to serious health concerns, particularly in infants and children. Outdoor displays in large, recurring festivals such as state fairs thus may threaten local air quality, particularly given the proximity of fairgrounds to substantial, [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from fireworks displays have been linked to serious health concerns, particularly in infants and children. Outdoor displays in large, recurring festivals such as state fairs thus may threaten local air quality, particularly given the proximity of fairgrounds to substantial, nearby residential populations. Here, we identify state fairs with known firework displays and assess their impact on air quality in nearby communities. We assessed the impact of three large, recurring festivals on PM2.5 levels in nearby communities. Overall, our multi-year analysis failed to identify measurable increases in PM2.5 concentrations during festival days at air quality monitoring sites within 4–10 km of the fairgrounds, even when data were filtered by wind direction. Results suggest that firework displays from such festivals are unlikely to violate PM2.5 air quality standards in communities near the fairgrounds. The results suggest that identifying a potential air pollution signal associated with fireworks is challenging, particularly in urban fairgrounds where air quality is impacted by multiple local and distant pollution sources. Local impacts may yet be identified in future studies if air quality is monitored closer to the fairgrounds and if the fireworks pyrotechnic content is known. Full article
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