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J. Clin. Transl. Ophthalmol., Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 3 articles

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11 pages, 1602 KiB  
Perspective
Recontextualizing Neuromyelitis Optica as a Systemic Condition: A Perspective
by Parker Webber, Brianna C. Landis and Amanda E. Brooks
J. Clin. Transl. Ophthalmol. 2023, 1(2), 61-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcto1020008 - 24 May 2023
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Abstract
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a demyelinating CNS disorder in which inflammatory cells infiltrate the spinal cord and optic nerve, has been identified as an AQP4-IgG-positive disease. Some of its most common clinical characteristics are optic neuritis, acute myelitis, area postrema syndrome, and [...] Read more.
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), a demyelinating CNS disorder in which inflammatory cells infiltrate the spinal cord and optic nerve, has been identified as an AQP4-IgG-positive disease. Some of its most common clinical characteristics are optic neuritis, acute myelitis, area postrema syndrome, and brainstem syndrome. However, the relationship between aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and NMOSD appears to be involved in pathologies outside of the CNS due to the fact that autoimmune, muscular, and paraneoplastic syndromes are more common in patients with NMOSD. This perspective presents an analysis of the current literature on neuromyelitis optica in an effort to further understand and compile pathologies that arise outside of the CNS secondary to NMOSD. Recontextualizing neuromyelitis optica as a systemic condition will facilitate greater diagnostic ability and improved treatment approaches. Full article
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9 pages, 2966 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Pomegranate Extract (Pomanox®) in a Reconstituted Human Corneal Epithelium Model
by Marcos Peñalver-Mellado, Fredy Silva-Fuentes, Agustín Villar, Anna Mula and Andrea Zangara
J. Clin. Transl. Ophthalmol. 2023, 1(2), 52-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcto1020007 - 19 Apr 2023
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Abstract
An in vitro study was conducted using a model of reconstituted human corneal epithelial (SkinEthic™ HCE/Human Corneal Epithelium) to test the modulation of cytokines secretion activity of Pomanox® (PMX), a standardized commercial extract of pomegranate fruit characterized by high punicalagin α + [...] Read more.
An in vitro study was conducted using a model of reconstituted human corneal epithelial (SkinEthic™ HCE/Human Corneal Epithelium) to test the modulation of cytokines secretion activity of Pomanox® (PMX), a standardized commercial extract of pomegranate fruit characterized by high punicalagin α + β content. Cell viability and inhibition of the release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was evaluated in four conditions: negative control, positive inflammatory control with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, positive anti-inflammatory control (LPS plus dexamethasone), and LPS plus PMX after 24 h of culture. The mean (±standard error of mean (SEM)) IL-8 level was 48.7 ± 5.1 pg/mL in the PMX condition vs. 172.7 ± 19.3 and 26.6 ± 1.2 in the LPS from E. coli and negative control, respectively (p < 0.05) and 93.8 ± 8.7 pg/mL in LPS plus dexamethasone (p = 0.165). The percentages of inhibition of IL-8 release were 45.7% for LPS plus dexamethasone and 63.8% for LPS plus PMX. The percentage of cell viability (86%) was also higher for the LPS plus PMX condition. The present findings add evidence to the anti-inflammatory effect of a PMX in an in vitro model of reconstituted corneal epithelial cells. Full article
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17 pages, 1366 KiB  
Review
The Activity of Substance P (SP) on the Corneal Epithelium
by Jonathan Kopel, Caezaan Keshvani, Kelly Mitchell and Ted Reid
J. Clin. Transl. Ophthalmol. 2023, 1(2), 35-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcto1020006 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2228
Abstract
In 1931, Von Euler and Gaddum isolated substance P (SP), an undecapeptide from the tachykinin family, from equine brain and intestine tissue extracts. Numerous types of cells, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, epithelial, and endothelial cells, as well as immune cells including T-cells, dendritic [...] Read more.
In 1931, Von Euler and Gaddum isolated substance P (SP), an undecapeptide from the tachykinin family, from equine brain and intestine tissue extracts. Numerous types of cells, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, epithelial, and endothelial cells, as well as immune cells including T-cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, are responsible for its production. The corneal epithelium, immune cells, keratocytes, and neurons all express the two isoforms of NK1R, which has the highest affinity for SP. The most recent research supports SP’s contribution to corneal healing by encouraging epithelial cell migration and proliferation. Additionally, when applied to the eyes, SP has proinflammatory effects that result in miosis, intraocular inflammation, and conjunctival hyperemia. In this review article, we examine the role of substance P within the eye. We focus on the role of SP with regards to maintenance and healing of the corneal epithelium. Full article
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