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Volume 1, December
 
 

Organoids, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2022) – 8 articles

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Review
Metabolic Studies in Organoids: Current Applications, Opportunities and Challenges
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 85-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010008 - 13 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Organoid technologies represent a major breakthrough in biomedical research since they offer increasingly sophisticated models for studying biological mechanisms supporting human development and disease. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) physiological in vitro systems that recapitulate the genetic, histological and functional features of the in [...] Read more.
Organoid technologies represent a major breakthrough in biomedical research since they offer increasingly sophisticated models for studying biological mechanisms supporting human development and disease. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) physiological in vitro systems that recapitulate the genetic, histological and functional features of the in vivo tissues of origin more accurately than classical cell culture methods. In the last decade, organoids have been derived from various healthy and diseased tissues and used for a wide range of applications in basic and translational research, including (cancer) tissue biology, development, regeneration, disease modeling, precision medicine, gene editing, biobanking and drug screening. Here, we report the current applications of organoid models to study (stem) cell metabolism in several pathophysiological contexts such as cancer and metabolic diseases. More precisely, we discuss the relevance and limitations of these 3D cultures to model and study metabolic (dys)functions associated with hepatic, renal or pancreatic disorders, as well as tumor development and progression. We also describe the use of organoids to understand the dynamic interaction between diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium. Finally, this review explores recent methodological improvements in organoid culture that may help to better integrate the influence of microenvironmental conditions in the study of tumor cell metabolic phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organoids)
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Review
Why Can Organoids Improve Current Organ-on-Chip Platforms?
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 69-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010007 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Preclinical studies are the first stage of introducing a new potential drug to the pharmaceutical market. Many of the compounds with promising results approved in the preclinical stage show poor prognosis during the first stage of clinical studies, which is connected with inadequate [...] Read more.
Preclinical studies are the first stage of introducing a new potential drug to the pharmaceutical market. Many of the compounds with promising results approved in the preclinical stage show poor prognosis during the first stage of clinical studies, which is connected with inadequate in vitro and in vivo models used in this stage. Both basic in vitro models, and in vivo animal models do not represent the human conditions. Therefore, scientists work on creating an appropriate model that will highly reproduce the characteristics of the human body. The solution could be an organoids model: a laboratory-produced human miniature organ, grown in a specially designed Organ-on-Chip microfluidic tools. This review focuses on characterizing the 3D cell culture types, focusing mainly on organoids, the Organ-on-Chip approach, and presenting the latest reports about the application of their combination in biological research, including toxicological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organoids in Organ-on-Chip Approach)
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Article
Adenoma-Derived Organoids for Precision Therapy
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 54-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010006 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Human colonic organoids derived from adult tissue biopsies are based on the ability of isolated somatic epithelial stem cells to reconstitute the structure and function of the colon, offering new opportunities for studying the biology of the large intestine in both health and [...] Read more.
Human colonic organoids derived from adult tissue biopsies are based on the ability of isolated somatic epithelial stem cells to reconstitute the structure and function of the colon, offering new opportunities for studying the biology of the large intestine in both health and disease. These colonoids may also function as efficient platforms for drug screening and discovery. Here, we describe the establishment of human colonic organoids derived from healthy, and adenomatous polyp tissues. We then demonstrate that organoids grown from adenomas of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients harboring nonsense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), can be used to establish a personalized therapeutic strategy which relies on nonsense mutation readthrough therapy. Full article
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Article
A Blood Vessel Organoid Model Recapitulating Aspects of Vasculogenesis, Angiogenesis and Vessel Wall Maturation
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 41-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010005 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Blood vessel organoids are an important in vitro model to understand the underlying mechanisms of human blood vessel development and for toxicity testing or high throughput drug screening. Here we present a novel, cost-effective, and easy to manufacture vascular organoid model. To engineer [...] Read more.
Blood vessel organoids are an important in vitro model to understand the underlying mechanisms of human blood vessel development and for toxicity testing or high throughput drug screening. Here we present a novel, cost-effective, and easy to manufacture vascular organoid model. To engineer the organoids, a defined number of human induced pluripotent stem cells are seeded in non-adhesive agarose coated wells of a 96-well plate and directed towards a lateral plate mesoderm fate by activation of Wnt and BMP4 signaling. We observe the formation of a circular layer of angioblasts around days 5–6. Induced by VEGF application, CD31+ vascular endothelial cells appear within this vasculogenic zone at approximately day 7 of organoid culture. These cells arrange to form a primitive vascular plexus from which angiogenic sprouting is observed after 10 days of culture. The differentiation outcome is highly reproducible, and the size of organoids is scalable depending on the number of starting cells. We observe that the initial vascular ring forms at the interface between two cell populations. The inner cellular compartment can be distinguished from the outer by the expression of GATA6, a marker of lateral plate mesoderm. Finally, 14-days-old organoids were transplanted on the chorioallantois membrane of chicken embryos resulting in a functional connection of the human vascular network to the chicken circulation. Perfusion of the vessels leads to vessel wall maturation and remodeling as indicated by the formation of a continuous layer of smooth muscle actin expressing cells enwrapping the endothelium. In summary, our organoid model recapitulates human vasculogenesis, angiogenesis as well as vessel wall maturation and therefore represents an easy and cost-effective tool to study all steps of blood vessel development and maturation directly in the human setting without animal experimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organoids)
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Editorial
Organoids, Assembloids and Embryoids: New Avenues for Developmental Biology, Disease Modeling, Drug Testing and Toxicity Assessment without Animal Experimentation
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 37-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010004 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 688
Abstract
The organs and tissues of our bodies consist of a specific set of cell types [...] Full article
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Review
Organoids as Miniature Twins—Challenges for Comparability and Need for Data Standardization and Access
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 28-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010003 - 09 Apr 2022
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Organoids derived from human stem cell lines represent genetically mostly identical models of their donors. Their use as personalized in vitro miniature twins of living individuals creates challenges of reproducibility, comparability and standardization. To fully exploit personalization, it is essential to assess individual [...] Read more.
Organoids derived from human stem cell lines represent genetically mostly identical models of their donors. Their use as personalized in vitro miniature twins of living individuals creates challenges of reproducibility, comparability and standardization. To fully exploit personalization, it is essential to assess individual variabilities in organoid function, morphology or maturity. There is a need to establish platforms to compare individual organoids and to link them to data elements related to the individual donor. Moreover, principal ethical issues arise because of their infinite repetition for an unlimited period of time and global dissemination. This infinite temporal and spatial space applies to the biological material but also to the data associated with it. It increases the possibility of uses that are unpredictable at the time of donation, and thus, beyond the donor’s consented choices. We propose an open data platform to address the issue of authenticity and persistent comparability of the biological organoid models, and of preserving the ethical provenance information. The platform would collect standardized donors, organoids and ethical information to create a system suitable for quality control of individual organoids. We discuss whether the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg), a well-established resource for stem cell data, provides a suitable model platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organoids)
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Review
Organoid Models of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: What Have We Learned about COVID-19?
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 2-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010002 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was classified as a pandemic in March 2020. As of 22 January 2022, globally more than 347 million cases of COVID-19 have been diagnosed, with 5.6 million deaths, making it [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was classified as a pandemic in March 2020. As of 22 January 2022, globally more than 347 million cases of COVID-19 have been diagnosed, with 5.6 million deaths, making it the deadliest pandemic since the influenza pandemic in 1918. The clinical presentation of COVID-19-related illness spans from asymptomatic to mild respiratory symptoms akin to influenza infection to acute symptoms, including pneumonia necessitating hospitalisation and admission to intensive care units. COVID-19 starts in the upper respiratory tract and lungs but in severe cases can also involve the heart, blood vessels, brain, liver, kidneys and intestine. The increasing global health and economic burden of COVID-19 necessitates an urgent and global response. Understanding the functional characteristics and cellular tropism of SARS-CoV-2, and the pathogenesis that leads to multi-organ failure and death, has prompted an unprecedented adoption of organoid models. Successful drug discovery and vaccine development rely on pre-clinical models that faithfully recapitulate the viral life cycle and the host cell response to infection. Human stem cell-derived organoids fulfill these criteria. Here we highlight the role of organoids in the study of SARS-CoV-2 infection and modelling of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organoids)
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Editorial
Publisher’s Note: Organoids—A New Open Access Journal
Organoids 2022, 1(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/organoids1010001 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Organoids are stem cell-derived 3D multicellular tissue constructs that mimic some of the structures and functions of a corresponding organ [...] Full article
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