Secondary Education and COVID-19
2. Education in the Era of COVID-19
2.1. Distance Education
2.2. Hybrid Learning Model
2.3. Synchronous or Asynchronous Learning
2.4. Student Assessment
3. Challenges in Education during COVID-19
3.1. Digital Competence
3.2. Remote Education
3.3. Increased Workload
3.4. Academic Performance
3.5. Daily Routines
3.6. Career-Related Plans
3.7. Socio-Economic Factors
3.7.1. Country/System Level
3.7.2. Individual Level
4. Psychological Insights
4.1. Mental Health of Students
4.2. Mental Health of Parents
4.3. Mental Health of Educators
5. A Positive Viewpoint?
5.1. Educational System Evolvement
5.2. Skill Development
5.3. Benefit to Relationships
6. Concluding Remarks
- The pandemic resulted in educational changes and disrupted the regular learning process.
- The mode of teaching became primarily digitized/virtual to reduce the transmissibility of the virus which affected all parties involved (students, teachers, parents).
- Several challenges for students, teachers, and parents emerged. These included the use of digital platforms and digital competence, increased workload, the loss of daily routines, changes in career-related plans, and socio-economic impacts.
- The new mode of learning impacted students’, teachers’, and parents’ mental health.
- Possible beneficial changes due to the pandemic, such as the evolvement of the educational system and skill development, were discussed. However, the long-term effects are still unknown.
- The educational system adapted to the several challenges that arose due to the pandemic. However, since the pandemic is ongoing, any accompanying current and unforeseen challenges will need to be addressed, with special attention given to the impact on all parties involved (students, educators, and parents).
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Entry Link on the Encyclopedia Platform
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Siakalli, M.; Mousoulidou, M.; Christodoulou, A.; Savvidou, A.; Kouppa, K. Secondary Education and COVID-19. Encyclopedia 2022, 2, 409-427. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025
Siakalli M, Mousoulidou M, Christodoulou A, Savvidou A, Kouppa K. Secondary Education and COVID-19. Encyclopedia. 2022; 2(1):409-427. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025Chicago/Turabian Style
Siakalli, Michailina, Marilena Mousoulidou, Andri Christodoulou, Angela Savvidou, and Kyriaki Kouppa. 2022. "Secondary Education and COVID-19" Encyclopedia 2, no. 1: 409-427. https://doi.org/10.3390/encyclopedia2010025