Carbon Emission and Cost Analysis of Using Hybrid Fibre White Topping Overlays—A Road Rehabilitation Feasibility Study
2. Background and Research Significance
3. Research Methodology
4. Mix Design and Experimental Procedure
4.1. General Experimental Details
4.2. Compressive Strength Testing Procedure
4.3. Split Tensile Strength Testing Procedure
4.4. Flexural Strength Testing Procedure
5. Assessment Models and Methodology
5.1. Goal, Scope, System Boundary and Functional Unit
5.2. Mathematical Models and Inventory Analysis
5.3. Sensitivity Analysis Using Monte-Carlo Simulation
5.4. Multi-Objective Function
5.5. Limitations and Assumptions
- The study results were based on laboratory-scale production of materials, and mass-scale industry production could exhibit different results.
- The study assumed that fibres used in the mix are extracted from plastic materials and the sorting, conversion process in the optimisation calculation.
- The study considered a maximum fibre content based on the reference sample results and assumed varying fibre content do not affect physical and mechanical characteristics significantly.
- In instances emission inventories were not available, emission factors were obtained from previously published literature.
- Some other phenomena in concrete such as carbonisation and carbon sequestration were not considered in the current study.
- Waste treatment and transportation of concrete raw material are not considered in the current study scope.
- Retail prices were used for raw material procurement costs, and these may differ from bulk costs.
- The study presented only compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths of the samples to demonstrate strength characteristics of the samples.
6. Results and Discussions
6.1. Experimental Results
6.2. Carbon Emissions and Manufacturing Cost Results
6.3. Sensitivity Results
6.4. Multi-Objective Optimisation Results
- The minimum and maximum fibre content limits were assumed as the fibre content in F1 sample and H1 hybrid mix respectively (0.9 < F1 + F2 + F3 < 3.0) and F1, F2, F3 > 0;
- Transportation distance was considered as a discrete value;
- Transportation cost was considered as a function of the travel distance and the weight of the materials transported;
7. Conclusions and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|2.||Form||Structured fibres in bundles||Fibrillated||Fibrillated|
|5.||Tensile Strength, N/mm2||618||400||250|
|7.||Carbon emission factor (kgCO2/kg)||1.57||1.69||2.97|
|Water||Cement||Fine Aggregates||Coarse Aggregates||Superplasticizer|
|Emission factor||0.0025||0.93||0.0048||0.083||5.2 × 10−6|
|No||Type of Mix||Fibre Dosage, kg/m3||Price per kg|
|5||H1 (F1 + F2 + F3)||1.50 + 0.50 + 0.45||-|
|Energy Source||Coal||Hydro||Nuclear||Renewable||Natural Gas||Diesel||Reference|
|Average carbon emission factor (kgCO2/kWh)||1.19||0.002||0.015||0.0012||0.41||0.84||[33,36]|
|Electricity emission factor||kgCO2/kWh||0.03–1.13||Lognormal||[33,38]|
|Transport emission factor||kgCO2/t-km||0.12–0.25||Uniform||[29,38,39]|
|Cement emission factor||kgCO2/kg||0.62–1.14||Normal||[40,41,42]|
|Diesel emission factor||kgCO2/kg||2.61–3.20||Lognormal||[33,38]|
|Raw material cost||INR/kg||5% to 95% of the initial value||Uniform||-|
|Region||F1||F2||F3||% Carbon Emission Escalation||% Cost Escalation|
|High carbon savings||0.90||0.70||0.40||0.33||52.35|
|High carbon savings||0.90||0.70||0.50||0.39||53.10|
|High carbon savings||0.70||0.90||0.40||0.34||52.35|
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Kuruvachalil, L.; Sandanayake, M.; Kumanayake, R.; Radhakrishna. Carbon Emission and Cost Analysis of Using Hybrid Fibre White Topping Overlays—A Road Rehabilitation Feasibility Study. Future Transp. 2022, 2, 263-280. https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010014
Kuruvachalil L, Sandanayake M, Kumanayake R, Radhakrishna. Carbon Emission and Cost Analysis of Using Hybrid Fibre White Topping Overlays—A Road Rehabilitation Feasibility Study. Future Transportation. 2022; 2(1):263-280. https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010014Chicago/Turabian Style
Kuruvachalil, Lujain, Malindu Sandanayake, Ramya Kumanayake, and Radhakrishna. 2022. "Carbon Emission and Cost Analysis of Using Hybrid Fibre White Topping Overlays—A Road Rehabilitation Feasibility Study" Future Transportation 2, no. 1: 263-280. https://doi.org/10.3390/futuretransp2010014