Static Hardness Testing of Cement Mortars Containing Different Types of Recycled Construction Waste Powders
- Long-term development of the compressive strength (up to one year) of cast specimens was studied, and the hardening process of the different samples was monitored.
- Specimens were subjected to DSI and Brinell hardness tests, and the results were analyzed on the bases of deformation, hardness, and energy.
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Compressive Strength Test Results
3.2. Non-Destructive Test Results
- Brinell: 0.19 and 0.16 mm;
- DSI maximum: 0.40 and 0.09 mm;
- DSI residual: 0.51 and 0.29 mm.
- Based on thermogravimetric analysis, it was determined that neither the aerated concrete powder nor the concrete powder works as a traditional SMC (such as metakaolin); there is no sign of chemical reactions (hydraulic reactions). However, aerated concrete powder swells during the hardening of the mortar, which makes it a beneficial filling material until its particles are small enough (based on our measurement dmax < 0.09 mm). The CP does not show any sign of these chemical reactions during the hardening of the mortar; it could be considered as an inert material in the mix.
- The long-term compressive strength tests showed that all applied recycled additives are influencing the hardening process of the mortar; however, after 360 days of age, their compressive strength was close to the reference mortar (CP10 was lower ~10%; Y10 was lower ~5%). By taking into account that these are recycled waste materials, from an environmental point of view, they are more advantageous and do not significantly affect the performance of the mix; it can be concluded that they could be applicable on a larger scale as well.
- The hardness test results from both the Brinell and DSI tests unanimously indicated that on a higher load level (4375 N in the present case), the standard deviation of the results (indentation diameter / Brinell hardness) is lower. In case of MK10 and CP10, the change in the compressive strength (compared to the reference) was followed by the hardness test results. However, in case of the Y10 mortar, the compressive strength decreased, while the measured Brinell hardness increased. This can be explained by the filler effect of aerated concrete powder, which increased the surface hardness of the samples.
- The hardness results were analyzed on an indentation energy basis, using the data available from the DSI tests. The analysis showed that all materials could be considered to be elastoplastic material. It was found that the aerated concrete powder has no effect on the total indentation energy, while the metakaolin increases it, and the concrete powder decreases it, that correlates with their hardness values compared to the reference mix.
- The analysis also highlighted that the change in the hardness value is connected to the elastic indentation energy, while it is seemingly independent from the dissipated (plastic) indentation energy. This indicates that the change in the compressive strength caused by additives influences the elastic properties of the material.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Reference||Reference mix, 100% cement|
|Y10||10% of cement was substituted by Y (cellular concrete powder)|
|MK10||10% of cement was substituted by MK (metakaolin)|
|CP10||10% of cement was substituted by CP (concrete powder)|
|Property||Mean Compressive Strength|
|Water Vapor Permeability|
|Additive||Bulk Density (kg/m3)||Specific Surface Area (cm2/cm3)|
|Aerated concrete powder (Y)||2000||2513|
|Concrete powder (CP)||2520||5224|
|F = 2500 N||F = 4375 N|
|Type of Hardness Test||Sample Name||Compressive Strength (N/mm2)||Compressive Strength Ratio (-)||Indentation Diameter (mm)||Brinell Hardness (HB)||Hardness Ratio to the Ref. Mix (-)||Indentation Diameter (mm)||Brinell Hardness (HB)||Hardness Ratio to the Ref. Mix (-)|
|2500 N||4375 N|
|Total Work Average (kNmm)||Dissipated (Plastic) Work Average (kNmm)||Elastic Work Average (kNmm)||Plastic Work Ratio (-)||Elastic Work Ratio (-)||Total Work Average (kNmm)||Dissipated (Plastic) Work Average (kNmm)||Elastic Work Average (kNmm)||Plastic Ratio (-)||Elastic Ratio (-)|
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Gyurkó, Z.; Nemes, R. Static Hardness Testing of Cement Mortars Containing Different Types of Recycled Construction Waste Powders. Solids 2021, 2, 331-340. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040021
Gyurkó Z, Nemes R. Static Hardness Testing of Cement Mortars Containing Different Types of Recycled Construction Waste Powders. Solids. 2021; 2(4):331-340. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040021Chicago/Turabian Style
Gyurkó, Zoltán, and Rita Nemes. 2021. "Static Hardness Testing of Cement Mortars Containing Different Types of Recycled Construction Waste Powders" Solids 2, no. 4: 331-340. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2040021