Previous Issue
Volume 1, September

J. Respir., Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 4 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Role of Macrophage Polarization in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
J. Respir. 2021, 1(4), 260-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor1040024 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a familiar and destructive clinical condition characterized by progressive, swift and impaired pulmonary state. It leads to mortality if not managed in a timely manner. Recently the role of imbalanced macrophage polarization has been reported in ARDS. Macrophages [...] Read more.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a familiar and destructive clinical condition characterized by progressive, swift and impaired pulmonary state. It leads to mortality if not managed in a timely manner. Recently the role of imbalanced macrophage polarization has been reported in ARDS. Macrophages are known for their heterogeneity and plasticity. Under different microenvironmental stimuli, they (M0) can switch between classically activated macrophage (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) states. This switch is regulated by several signaling pathways and epigenetic changes. In this review, the importance of macrophage M1 and M2 has been discussed in the arena of ARDS citing the phase-wise impact of macrophage polarization. This will provide a further understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in ARDS and will help in developing novel therapeutic targets. Various biomarkers that are currently used concerning this pathophysiological feature have also been summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Immunity in the Lung)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Immune Correlates of Non-Necrotic and Necrotic Granulomas in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Pilot Study
J. Respir. 2021, 1(4), 248-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor1040023 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 231
Abstract
A granuloma, a pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), is a complex cellular structure that develops at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and is comprised of different immune cell types. Severe pulmonary TB in humans is characterized by the presence of heterogeneous [...] Read more.
A granuloma, a pathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), is a complex cellular structure that develops at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and is comprised of different immune cell types. Severe pulmonary TB in humans is characterized by the presence of heterogeneous granulomas, ranging from highly cellular to solid/non-necrotic and necrotic lesions, within the lungs. The host-Mtb interactions within the granulomas dictate the containment of Mtb infection or its progression into a necrotic, cavitary disease. However, the immune environment in various granulomas is poorly understood. The myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are key immune cells that regulate the protective versus permissive host responses against Mtb infection. However, their contexture within the lung granulomas remains unclear. In this study, using single and multiplex immunohistochemical staining, we analyzed the distribution of MDSCs, macrophages, CD4+ T cells and their immunometabolic and effector function states in the solid/non-necrotic and necrotic granulomas in patients with active pulmonary TB. We found increased MDSCs with elevated expression of immunosuppressive molecules in the solid/non-necrotic granulomas. In contrast, cells in the solid and necrotic granulomas produced similar levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Our findings suggest that MDSCs are present in solid/non-necrotic granuloma, which may play an essential role in the progression into a necrotic lesion, thus exacerbating disease pathology and transmission. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Three-Dimensional Airway Spheroids and Organoids for Cystic Fibrosis Research
J. Respir. 2021, 1(4), 229-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor1040022 - 07 Oct 2021
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive multi-organ disease caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, with morbidity and mortality primacy related to the lung disease. The CFTR protein, a chloride/bicarbonate channel, is expressed at the apical [...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive multi-organ disease caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, with morbidity and mortality primacy related to the lung disease. The CFTR protein, a chloride/bicarbonate channel, is expressed at the apical side of airway epithelial cells and is mainly involved in appropriate ion and fluid transport across the epithelium. Although many animal and cellular models have been developed to study the pathophysiological consequences of the lack/dysfunction of CFTR, only the three-dimensional (3D) structures termed “spheroids” and “organoids” can enable the reconstruction of airway mucosa to model organ development, disease pathophysiology, and drug screening. Airway spheroids and organoids can be derived from different sources, including adult lungs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), each with its advantages and limits. Here, we review the major features of airway spheroids and organoids, anticipating that their potential in the CF field has not been fully shown. Further work is mandatory to understand whether they can accomplish better outcomes than other culture conditions of airway epithelial cells for CF personalized therapies and tissue engineering aims. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Programmed Cell Death in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Short Review
J. Respir. 2021, 1(4), 223-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/jor1040021 - 24 Sep 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the latest variant in the coronavirus family, causing COVID-19, has resulted in global pandemic since early 2020 leading to severe public health concern. So far, the pandemic has caused more than 200 million infections and 4 [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the latest variant in the coronavirus family, causing COVID-19, has resulted in global pandemic since early 2020 leading to severe public health concern. So far, the pandemic has caused more than 200 million infections and 4 million deaths worldwide. Most of the studies are focused on developing prevention, intervention, and therapeutic strategies. However, underlying pathophysiology of the disease is important as well, which needs further attention. Cell death is one of the major causative mechanisms that leads to severe inflammation, and it is also an a posteriori consequence of the hyperinflammatory storm that renders poor prognosis of the disease. Substantial cell death has been reported in biopsy samples from post mortem patients. Among the distinct cell death pathways, apoptosis, the regulated programmed cell death plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Understanding the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in apoptosis is critical to linearize the pathogenesis of the virus as well as the resultant disease, that may uncover novel therapeutic targets in treatment of COVID-19 patients. Here, we review the current progress on the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of SARS-CoV-2-induced apoptosis, not only at the level of the virus but also at its individual proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Journal of Respiration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop