Next Issue
Volume 2, September
Previous Issue
Volume 2, March
 
 

Journal. Media, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 11 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
News Values on Instagram: A Comparative Study of International News
by Ahmed Al-Rawi, Alaa Al-Musalli and Abdelrahman Fakida
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 305-320; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020018 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 7628
Abstract
This study employs the news values theory and method in the examination of a large dataset of international news retrieved from Instagram. News values theory itself is subjected to critical examination, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses. Using a mixed method that includes content [...] Read more.
This study employs the news values theory and method in the examination of a large dataset of international news retrieved from Instagram. News values theory itself is subjected to critical examination, highlighting its strengths and weaknesses. Using a mixed method that includes content analysis and topic modeling, the study investigates the major news topics most ‘liked’ by Instagram audiences and compares them with the topics most reported on by news organizations. The findings suggest that Instagram audiences prefer to consume general news, human-interest stories and other stories that are mainly positive in nature, unlike news on politics and other topics on which traditional news organizations tend to focus. Finally, the paper addresses the implications of the above findings. Full article
17 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Kindness and Control: The Political Leadership of Jacinda Ardern in the Aotearoa New Zealand COVID-19 Media Conferences
by Geoffrey Craig
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 288-304; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020017 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 11534
Abstract
Aotearoa New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s management of COVID-19 media conferences demonstrated a complex negotiation of expressions of ‘kindness’ and political ‘control’ as Ardern sought to unify the national public and implement a national emergency that closed the border and suspended civil [...] Read more.
Aotearoa New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s management of COVID-19 media conferences demonstrated a complex negotiation of expressions of ‘kindness’ and political ‘control’ as Ardern sought to unify the national public and implement a national emergency that closed the border and suspended civil liberties and freedom of movement. This article considers the distinctive positive leadership style of Ardern while also demonstrating the ways it is grounded in the exigencies of the political field. A critical reading of Ardern’s media conference answers reveals four nominated categories: positive assertions, management of conflict/disagreement, delineation of politician role/responsibility, and political evasion. The four categories map the terrain of agreement and disagreement and they locate the subject position of the politician on that terrain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media Freedom in the Age of COVID-19)
13 pages, 1632 KiB  
Article
The Media’s Influence on the Government: A Case Study of Venezuela’s Media Agenda Setting with a Non-Free Press and Its Repercussions
by Susan M. Fredricks and Joshua D. Phillips
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 275-287; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020016 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4741
Abstract
A free and open press (unincumbered by political pressures) is necessary to hold government officials accountable. When governments become entangled in the business of licensing and regulating news outlets, news outlets succumb to the pressures of only publishing stories favorable to the current [...] Read more.
A free and open press (unincumbered by political pressures) is necessary to hold government officials accountable. When governments become entangled in the business of licensing and regulating news outlets, news outlets succumb to the pressures of only publishing stories favorable to the current regime. The temptation to publish negative stories could result in losing one’s publishing license. This scenario has been playing out in Venezuela for the past two decades and has led to a media culture of misinformation, confusion, and propaganda. This paper first analyzes the Venezuelan view on the influential forces on its government through the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP). Second, it explores how the Venezuelan government vanquished the free press by affecting the Venezuelan citizens’ attitudes towards the press. Finally, it reviews how the internet and social media are creating new avenues for publishing uncensored and unregulated information in an effort to challenge current government restrictions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
Audience Views on Professional Norms of Journalism. A Media Repertoire Approach
by Pauljan Truyens and Ike Picone
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 258-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020015 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4043
Abstract
Despite several studies showing discrepancies between audience expectations of journalism and journalists’ professional norms, what remains largely unknown is the audience view on the adherence of journalism to these seemingly essential professional norms. Recent research mainly focused on analysing audience expectations within the [...] Read more.
Despite several studies showing discrepancies between audience expectations of journalism and journalists’ professional norms, what remains largely unknown is the audience view on the adherence of journalism to these seemingly essential professional norms. Recent research mainly focused on analysing audience expectations within the context of specific cases. Moreover, these studies rarely take into consideration characteristics that might shape people’s views on journalism such as political ideology. This article seeks to complement these studies by exploring the impact that a user’s news consumption might have on their expectations of journalism. Utilizing data from an online survey among a representative sample of the Flemish audience, we analyse views on adherence to the main professional norms by the Flemish media, and subsequently relate these to news consumption. To grasp the cross- and multi-medial news consumer, we use a news repertoire approach. Flemish news repertoires differ significantly in views on several professional journalistic norms. By linking these distinct news repertoires to their views on professional norms of journalism, we first question how essential these professional norms put forward by journalists really are. Secondly, we discuss if expectations of journalism result in divergent news consumption strategies or vice versa, laying the groundwork for further exploring audience views on professional journalistic norms. Full article
14 pages, 920 KiB  
Review
Algorithmic Journalism—Current Applications and Future Perspectives
by Efthimis Kotenidis and Andreas Veglis
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 244-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020014 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 12320
Abstract
Journalism, more so than other professions, is entangled with technology in a unique and profoundly impactful way. In this context, the technological developments of the past decades have fundamentally impacted the journalistic profession in more ways than one, opening up new possibilities and [...] Read more.
Journalism, more so than other professions, is entangled with technology in a unique and profoundly impactful way. In this context, the technological developments of the past decades have fundamentally impacted the journalistic profession in more ways than one, opening up new possibilities and simultaneously creating a number of concerns for people working in the media industry. The changes that were brought about by the rise of automation and algorithmic technology can mainly be observed in four distinct fields of application within journalism: automated content production, data mining, news dissemination and content optimization. This article focuses on algorithmic journalism and aims to highlight the ways that algorithmic technology is being utilized within those fields, as well as pointing out the ways in which these developments have altered the way journalism is being exercised in the modern world. The study also discusses challenges related to these technologies that are yet to be addressed, as well as potential future implementations related to algorithmic journalism that have the capacity to improve on the foundation of automation in the news industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence in Journalism and Media)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
Closed Churches during the Pandemic: Liberal versus Conservative and Christian versus Atheist Argumentation in Media
by Terézia Rončáková
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 225-243; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020013 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to the introduction of various epidemiological measures, including the ban on public worship. The problem of closed churches has become an intensely debated subject across several countries and a hotly debated question in recent media discourse. This [...] Read more.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to the introduction of various epidemiological measures, including the ban on public worship. The problem of closed churches has become an intensely debated subject across several countries and a hotly debated question in recent media discourse. This paper provides an analysis of the arguments presented on the subject of closed churches by the media in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In addition to the detailed analysis of the argumentation used, it also presents a twofold comparison: arguments presented in liberal versus conservative media, and arguments presented in the Slovak media versus Czech media. Twenty-eight years ago, these two countries were part of one state and after the split, the countries became a model of a peaceful dissolution (the so-called ‘velvet divorce’). However, from a religious perspective, they are quite different: whereas Slovakia is one of the most Christian (Catholic) countries, the Czech Republic is one of the most atheist countries in Europe. Three research dimensions are presented as part of this study: (1) media argumentation on the problem of closed churches; (2) comparison of liberal versus conservative arguments; (3) comparison of the media coverage in a strongly Christian country versus a strongly atheist country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Media Freedom in the Age of COVID-19)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
From the Antenna to the Display Devices: Transformation of the Colombian Radio Industry
by Andrés Barrios-Rubio
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 208-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020012 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Consolidation of the digital environment has become an irreversible global reality and, for the Colombian radio industry, it implies not only assuming a process of transformation in its actions, but, above all, continuous learning. Technological innovation imposes new forms of consumption whose logic [...] Read more.
Consolidation of the digital environment has become an irreversible global reality and, for the Colombian radio industry, it implies not only assuming a process of transformation in its actions, but, above all, continuous learning. Technological innovation imposes new forms of consumption whose logic corresponds to new systems for the production, distribution and commercialization of information, culture, science and entertainment. Object of study. Adaptation of the radio medium to the digital ecosystem of audiences invites us to focus the attention of researchers on the media’s use of web-radio, app–radio and social media; the relevance of sound semiotics compared to other components of the message on users’ screens; and the alterations suffered by the business model and productive routines of the radio. Methodology. This research took as its focus of study three Colombian radio stations and their informative stations—Caracol Radio, W Radio, Blu Radio, RCN Radio and La FM—through a mixed methodology. Quantitative instruments—numerical data to monitor activities on social platforms—and qualitative instruments—interpretation of messages and visual composition of the message—allow for the monitoring and analyzing of the performance of the radio medium in the digital environment, and the tactical approach of radio agents to delineate the strategies that promote the expansion, positioning and participation of radio in the Colombian media ecosystem. Results. Normalization of connectivity, ubiquity, timelessness and interactivity are, today, inherent values of the content broadcast by the radio industry, which needs to appropriate the tastes and interests of the audience through multi-device, multi-tasking and multi-user devices. Conclusion. Consumption actions of listeners: users are concentrated on the Smartphone screens, which provides a habit of listening and monitoring that forces the media to incorporate the format—and language—of video into their productive dynamics in order to attract and retain the attention of their audiences. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
Parents and Teachers’ Perceptions of the Tone and Emotional Impact of Education News Coverage
by Kathryn Shine and Shane L. Rogers
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 193-207; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020011 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3375
Abstract
This study examines Australian teachers (n = 268) and parents’ (n = 206) self-reported perceptions of education news coverage and how the coverage affects them. Overall, the participants reported a perception that news coverage of teachers, schools, the education system and [...] Read more.
This study examines Australian teachers (n = 268) and parents’ (n = 206) self-reported perceptions of education news coverage and how the coverage affects them. Overall, the participants reported a perception that news coverage of teachers, schools, the education system and standardised testing was generally negative in tone. Participants reported typically feeling demoralised by negative stories and inspired by positive stories. A high importance was placed upon the public perception of education by participants. However, trust in the media reporting of educational issues was low. An exception to this general pattern of findings was that participants did not place as much importance upon the public perception of standardised testing and reported being less affected by negative or positive stories on that topic compared to the other education aspects. This research is one of the few studies to investigate the potential emotional impact that news coverage of education can have on media consumers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

38 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Media Studies, Audiovisual Media Communications, and Generations: The Case of Budding Journalists in Radio Courses in Greece
by Constantinos Nicolaou, Maria Matsiola, Christina Karypidou, Anna Podara, Rigas Kotsakis and George Kalliris
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 155-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020010 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5278
Abstract
In this article, the quality of media studies education through effective teaching utilizing audiovisual media technologies and audiovisual content (audiovisual media communications) to budding journalists as adult learners (18 years and older) is researched, with results primarily intended for application in radio lessons [...] Read more.
In this article, the quality of media studies education through effective teaching utilizing audiovisual media technologies and audiovisual content (audiovisual media communications) to budding journalists as adult learners (18 years and older) is researched, with results primarily intended for application in radio lessons at all educational levels and disciplines (including adult education). Nowadays, audiovisual media communications play an important role in the modern and visual-centric way of our life, while they require all of us to possess multiple-multimodal skills to have a successful professional practice and career, and especially those who study media studies, such as tomorrow’s new journalists. Data were collected after three interactive teachings with emphasis on educational effectiveness in technology-enhanced learning, through a specially designed written questionnaire with a qualitative and quantitative form (evaluation form), as case study experiments that applied qualitative action research with quasi-experiments. The results (a) confirmed (i) the theory of audiovisual media in education, as well as (ii) the genealogical characteristics and habits of budding journalists as highlighted in basic generational theory, something which appears to be in agreement with findings of previous studies and research; and (b) showed that (i) teaching methodology and educational techniques aimed primarily at adult learners in adult education kept the interest and attention of the budding journalists through the use of such specific educational communication tools as audiovisual media technologies, as well as (ii) sound/audio media, as audiovisual content may hold a significant part in a lecture. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Community Interaction Modules of European and American Universities
by Yulin Chen
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 129-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020009 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
Purpose—Using a sample of universities from Europe and North America the research herein seeks to understand the content trends of university brand pages through an exploration of the social community and the measurement of user participation and behavior. The analysis relies on an [...] Read more.
Purpose—Using a sample of universities from Europe and North America the research herein seeks to understand the content trends of university brand pages through an exploration of the social community and the measurement of user participation and behavior. The analysis relies on an artificial intelligence approach. Through the verification of interactions between users and content on the university brand pages, recommendations are made, which aim to ensure the pages meet the needs of users in the future. Design/methodology/approach—The study sample was drawn from six well-known universities in Europe and North America. The content of 23,158 posts made over the course of nine years between 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2019 was obtained by a web crawler. Concepts in the fields of computer science, data mining, big data and ensemble learning (Random Decision Forests, eXtreme Gradient Boosting and AdaBoost) were combined to analyze the results obtained from social media exploration. Findings—By exploring community content and using artificial intelligence analysis, the research identified key information on the university brand pages that significantly affected the cognition and behavior of users. The results suggest that distinct levels of user participation arise from the use of different key messages on the university fan page. The interactive characteristics identified within the study sample were classified as one of the following module-types: (a) information and entertainment satisfaction module, (b) compound identity verification module or (c) compound interactive satisfaction module. Research limitations/implications—The study makes a contribution to the literature by developing a university community information interaction model, which explains different user behaviors, and by examining the impact of common key (image) clues contained within community information. This work also confirms that the behavioral involvement of users on the university’s brand page is closely related to the information present within the university community. A limitation of the study was the restriction of the sample to only European and North American cultural and economic backgrounds and the use of Facebook as the sole source of information about the university community. Practical implications—Practically, the research contributes to our understanding of how, in official community interactions, user interactions can be directed by features such as information stimuli and brand meanings. In addition, the work clarifies the relationship between information and user needs, explaining how the information characteristics and interaction rules particular to a given school can be strengthened in order to better manage the university brand page and increase both the attention and interaction of page users. Originality/value—This research provides an important explanation of the role of key information on the university fan pages and verifies the importance of establishing key (image) clues in the brand community, which in turn affect user cognition and interaction. Although related research exists on information manipulation and the importance of online communities, few studies have directly discussed the influence of key information on the fan pages of university brands. Therefore, this research will help to fill gaps in the literature and practice by examining a specific context, while at the same time providing a valuable and specific reference for the community operation and management of other related university brands. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Illusion vs. Disillusion: Chinese Viewers’ Articulation of “House of Cards”
by Zhaoxi (Josie) Liu
Journal. Media 2021, 2(2), 115-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2020008 - 11 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2210
Abstract
This study explores how Chinese viewers articulate the meaning of the Netflix series “House of Cards” through analyzing viewer comments posted on Sohu Video, which streamed the show in China. A qualitative textual analysis of the comments reveals that the Sohu viewers turned [...] Read more.
This study explores how Chinese viewers articulate the meaning of the Netflix series “House of Cards” through analyzing viewer comments posted on Sohu Video, which streamed the show in China. A qualitative textual analysis of the comments reveals that the Sohu viewers turned the commenting of the show into articulations of democracy and China’s political conditions. In their articulation, some endorsed American democracy as a superb political system, while others resented it as being dark and corrupt, similar to the one in China. Still other viewers made a connection between “Cards” with China’s lack of freedom of speech. These connections were made under certain social conditions, including China’s internet providing a space for political discourse, tensions among different social forces and conflicting meaning systems existing in today’s China, and Chinese people’s increasing consumption of foreign media content and assumptions. Analyzing a particular case of transnational communication, this study demonstrates how the audience can make meaning of a foreign media product by connecting with their own social context, and how such articulations can be plural and multifaceted. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop