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Article

Insights on the Impacts of Hydroclimatic Extremes and Anthropogenic Activities on Sediment Yield of a River Basin

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Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX 79927, USA
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Department of Geosciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
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Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801, USA
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IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
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Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
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The Small Earth Nepal, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Ministry of Physical Infrastructure Development, Pokhara 33700, Nepal
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Nepal Electricity Authority, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Aerospace Information Research Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
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Natural Hazards Section, Himalayan Risk Research Institute, Bhaktapur 44800, Nepal
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School of Engineering, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
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Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Earth 2021, 2(1), 32-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010003
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
Streamflow and sediment flux variations in a mountain river basin directly affect the downstream biodiversity and ecological processes. Precipitation is expected to be one of the main drivers of these variations in the Himalayas. However, such relations have not been explored for the mountain river basin, Nepal. This paper explores the variation in streamflow and sediment flux from 2006 to 2019 in central Nepal’s Kali Gandaki River basin and correlates them to precipitation indices computed from 77 stations across the basin. Nine precipitation indices and four other ratio-based indices are used for comparison. Percentage contributions of maximum 1-day, consecutive 3-day, 5-day and 7-day precipitation to the annual precipitation provide information on the severity of precipitation extremeness. We found that maximum suspended sediment concentration had a significant positive correlation with the maximum consecutive 3-day precipitation. In contrast, average suspended sediment concentration had significant positive correlations with all ratio-based precipitation indices. The existing sediment erosion trend, driven by the amount, intensity, and frequency of extreme precipitation, demands urgency in sediment source management on the Nepal Himalaya’s mountain slopes. The increment in extreme sediment transports partially resulted from anthropogenic interventions, especially landslides triggered by poorly-constructed roads, and the changing nature of extreme precipitation driven by climate variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Himalaya; precipitation indices; streamflow; sediment flux; suspended sediment Himalaya; precipitation indices; streamflow; sediment flux; suspended sediment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Talchabhadel, R.; Panthi, J.; Sharma, S.; Ghimire, G.R.; Baniya, R.; Dahal, P.; Baniya, M.B.; K.C., S.; Jha, B.; Kaini, S.; Dahal, K.; Gnyawali, K.R.; Parajuli, B.; Kumar, S. Insights on the Impacts of Hydroclimatic Extremes and Anthropogenic Activities on Sediment Yield of a River Basin. Earth 2021, 2, 32-50. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010003

AMA Style

Talchabhadel R, Panthi J, Sharma S, Ghimire GR, Baniya R, Dahal P, Baniya MB, K.C. S, Jha B, Kaini S, Dahal K, Gnyawali KR, Parajuli B, Kumar S. Insights on the Impacts of Hydroclimatic Extremes and Anthropogenic Activities on Sediment Yield of a River Basin. Earth. 2021; 2(1):32-50. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Talchabhadel, Rocky, Jeeban Panthi, Sanjib Sharma, Ganesh R. Ghimire, Rupesh Baniya, Piyush Dahal, Mahendra B. Baniya, Shivaram K.C., Biswo Jha, Surendra Kaini, Kshitij Dahal, Kaushal R. Gnyawali, Binod Parajuli, and Saurav Kumar. 2021. "Insights on the Impacts of Hydroclimatic Extremes and Anthropogenic Activities on Sediment Yield of a River Basin" Earth 2, no. 1: 32-50. https://doi.org/10.3390/earth2010003

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