# Combined Cooling and Power Management Strategy for a Standalone House Using Hydrogen and Solar Energy

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{2}/day (vs. 3.4 kWh/m

^{2}/day in Paris)—that can be converted into electricity by photovoltaic (PV) panels or into heat by solar thermal collectors [2]. French Polynesia wishes to achieve at least 60% of their electricity production through renewable energies by 2030. In 2018, 31% was produced by hydroelectric power plants and 6% was produced by PV power plants. In order to increase the share of renewables on the electricity mix, the share of PV has to grow, as does storage capacity for the PV output power [1].

_{2}emissions were reduced by 45% and the cost increase was estimated at 290% compared to a conventional system. In the case of an isolated trigeneration system, the authors of [21] used a solid oxide fuel cell supplied by hydrocarbons to provide on-board electrical, heating, and cooling needs. They found that using an absorption chiller reduced the electrical power needed to cool the air and increased the overall efficiency from 12% (in the case of classical air conditioning) to 43% (with the use of an absorption chiller). Another group of researchers [22] studied the sizing of a cooling/heating and electrical power generation system for standalone applications and the impact of management on the lifetime of the equipment. In this study, cooling was produced by an absorption chiller.

- A combined cooling and electrical power management algorithm with a thermal model for a standalone application;
- The integration of an ACS for cooling storage with fuel cell and electrolyzer systems considering existing equipment; and
- An evaluation of the impact of the ACS on performances and sizing.

## 2. System Overview

## 3. Energetic Modeling

#### 3.1. Electrical Modeling

_{pv}) is proportional to the received solar radiation (Irr) and the panels area (S

_{pv}). The PV panel efficiency is noted ${\mathsf{\eta}}_{pv}$. On these latitudes, PV panels can be installed horizontally [26]. The output power of the PV panels is present in Equation (3):

_{fc}, consuming ${\stackrel{\xb7}{\mathrm{n}}}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{out}}$ Nm

^{3}/h of hydrogen. The electrolyzer is a PEM electrolyzer consuming a constant power P

_{ele}to produce ${\stackrel{\xb7}{\mathrm{n}}}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{in}}$ Nm

^{3}/h of hydrogen. The amount of energy available inside the hydrogen tank can be evaluated by the inside pressure of the tank (Press

_{H2}), with R being the perfect gas constant and T being the inside temperature (fixed at 25 °C). At the working pressure (below 60 bars), hydrogen is supposed to be a perfect gas (z = 1.006 at 60 bars and 298 K). Therefore, the perfect gas law can be applied to determine the pressure inside the tank [27] (4):

^{3}/h for the fuel cell, and that entering the tank, ${\stackrel{\xb7}{\mathrm{n}}}_{{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{in}}$, is 0.5 Nm

^{3}/h for the electrolyzer (see Section 3.3 for experimental results).

_{n}. If the battery is full, SOC = 1, and if it is empty, SOC = 0. Therefore, the SOC is the amount of energy available in the battery and is modeled by Equation (5) where ${\mathrm{P}}_{bat{t}_{t}}$ is the power of the battery at the time t:

_{hp}to produce a cooling power Q

_{cool}proportional to the COP

_{hp}of the heat pump (6) and works at its nominal power or with excess PV power (7):

_{hp}= min(P

_{hp,nom}, P

_{pv,excess})

_{bus}) is the sum of all the power producers minus all of the power consumers at any time (8):

#### 3.2. Thermal Modeling

_{tcs}of 4 kW. The energy balance inside the ammonia tank is as follows (9):

_{fc}and Q

_{ele}being the heat produced by the fuel cell and the electrolyzer. Q

_{fc}and Q

_{ele}depend on the operation electrical power and the efficiency of the components (10). The fuel cell and electrolyzer efficiency ${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{fc};\mathrm{ele}}$ are the mean values that have been experimentally determined on actual systems in our laboratory (see Section 3.3).

#### 3.3. Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Test Results

^{3}/h, water cooled. Figure 7 presents the fuel cell hydrogen consumption versus the power produced. Up to 300 W, the fuel cell is in IDLE phase; then from 300 W to 1400 W, the hydrogen consumption is proportional to the power produced. At 1400 W, the hydrogen consumption is 16 NL/min, which corresponds to 0.96 Nm

^{3}/h. The peaks on the figure are due to normal hydrogen purges of the fuel cell that lasts less than 1s.

^{3}/h. For Figure 9, Figure 10, Figure 11 and Figure 12, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer were started and their nominal working point were set, i.e., 60 A and 71 A, respectively. Figure 9 presents the fuel cell efficiency defined as the ratio between the lower heating value of hydrogen consumed and the electrical power produced. After the startup phase of 100 s, the fuel cell efficiency is constant at 55%, and after 400 s, at its nominal working point, the efficiency is constant at 54%.

## 4. Electrical and Thermal Management

#### 4.1. Electrical Power Management

_{curt}).

_{min,rech}) if the hydrogen tank is not empty. If both the hydrogen tank and the battery are empty, then the power demand cannot be met and the load must be reduced or shedded (P

_{ls}), but as size of the energetic system is constructed as optimally as possible, this situation should never occur.

#### 4.2. Thermal Management

_{set}), the cooling demand must be satisfied. In our simulation, occupancy is defined from 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. It must be noted that, at these times of the day in such tropical areas, there is no solar energy available.

## 5. Results

^{2}and a setpoint temperature of 24 °C. Figure 15 presents the power of each component on the DC bus. Two consecutive days were chosen. This figure shows that the fuel cell produces electric power during periods of nighttime and the electrolyzer work during high PV-production hours. The heat pump stores cooling energy during the day and produces cooling energy during the night. During the evening and nighttime, the electrical load is supplied mainly by the battery. Figure 16 presents the temperature inside the building (orange) and the outside temperature (blue). It can be seen that the proposed thermal management is able to reduce the inside temperature in less than one hour. During the night, the inside temperature is maintained below 24 °C.

_{fc}) and the electrolyzer (T

_{ele}) by 60% and 62%, respectively, and decreases the number of starts of the fuel cell by 57% and the number of starts of the electrolyzer by 54%. The minimum PV area required for installation is reduced by 14%. The number of cycles of the battery is reduced by 11% with the use of the ACS. System efficiency is increased, as 7% of the curtailed PV production had been saved. The heat pump compressor is a more often used with the ACS because the compressor is used to store cooling when there is no cooling demand, this explains the high contribution of the PV in Figure 20. Each time the room is occupied, and the inside temperature is above 26 °C, it is considered that the thermal demand is not provided, and then, the time T

_{hot}is recorded. The thermal comfort (T

_{hot}) is slightly degraded because the power cooling of the ACS (4 kW) is inferior to the cooling power of the classical air conditioning (6.3 kW), but this could be neglected as it represents 20 min per day.

## 6. Conclusions and Perspectives

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 6.**Adsorption cooling system (ACS). On the left side is the storage phase; on the right side is the cooling production [29].

Materials | Width (mm) | Surface (m^{2}) | Thermal Conductivity (W/m/°C) | Overall Building Equivalent Resistance R_{eq} (°Cm^{2}/W) | Total Air Mass (kg) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Walls | Steel/Polystyrene/Steel | 0.5/50/0.5 | 127.5 | 0.038 | 0.0104 (U-value = 96.36 W/m ^{2}/°C) | 110 |

Ceiling | PVC | 8 | 36.63 | 0.14 | ||

Windows | Glass/air/glass | 3/13/3 | 4 | 0.78 |

PV panels efficiency: ${\mathsf{\eta}}_{pv}$ | 0.2 |

Fuel cell power/consumption: ${\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{fc}}$ | 1.4 kW |

Fuel cell consumption: | 0.96 Nm^{3}/h |

Fuel cell efficiency: ${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{fc}}$ | 0.54 |

Electrolyzer production/consumption: | 0.5 Nm^{3}/h |

Electrolyzer consumption: ${\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{ele}}$ | 2.1 kW |

Electrolyzer efficiency: ${\mathsf{\eta}}_{\mathrm{ele}}$ | 0.7 |

Battery capacity: ${\mathrm{Q}}_{\mathrm{n}}$ | 5.2 kWh |

SOC_{max} | 1 |

SOC_{min} | 0 |

AC power consumption: P_{hp} | 1500 W |

Electric loads: ${\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{load}}$ | Max 450 W |

Hydrogen tank volume: V | 850 L |

Hydrogen tank maximum pressure: Press_{H2,max} | 60 bars |

Hydrogen tank minimum pressure: Press_{H2,min} | 0 |

Ammonia maximum capacity: ${\mathrm{Amm}}_{\mathrm{lev},\mathrm{max}}^{\mathrm{liq}}$ | 5 kWh |

Ammonia minimum capacity: ${\mathrm{Amm}}_{\mathrm{lev},\mathrm{min}}^{\mathrm{liq}}$ | 0 |

Desorption by compressor at T_{amb} | COP_{1} | 2.25 [30] |

Desorption by compressor assisted by a heat source at 50 °C | COP_{2} | 4.8 [28] |

Thermal desorption without compressor work | COP_{3} | 0.46 [31] |

MVC mode | COP_{hp} | 4.2 [28] |

Absence of Thermal Load | T_{set} = 26 °C | T_{set} = 24 °C | |
---|---|---|---|

S_{pv} minimum (m^{2}) | 10 | 10 | 12 |

T_{fc} (h) | 23 | 86 | 306 |

Number of starts, FC | 6 | 27 | 93 |

T_{ele} (h) | 40 | 81 | 242 |

Number of starts, electrolyzer | 23 | 38 | 92 |

Battery number of cycles | 215 | 241 | 273 |

Cooling ratio (%) | NA | 71 | 53 |

E_{hp}/E_{tot} (%) | NA | 45 | 45 |

E_{pvloss} (%) | 70.5 | 52 | 52 |

T_{hot} (h) | NA | 292 | 377 |

With TCS | Without TCS | TCS Effects | |
---|---|---|---|

S_{pv} minimum (m^{2}) | 12 | 14 | −14% |

T_{fc} (h) | 306 | 758 | −60% |

Number of starts, FC | 93 | 217 | −57% |

T_{ele} (h) | 242 | 629 | −62% |

Number of starts, electrolyzer | 92 | 201 | −54% |

Battery number of cycles | 273 | 307 | −11% |

E_{hp}/E_{tot} (%) | 45 | 29 | +16% |

E_{pvloss} (%) | 52 | 59 | −7% |

T_{hot} (h) | 377 | 254 | +48% |

5 kWh TCS | 10 kWh TCS | 15 kWh TCS | |
---|---|---|---|

S_{pv} minimum (m^{2}) | 12 | 12 | 10 |

Cooling ratio (%) | 53 | 85 | 96 |

E_{pvloss} (%) | 52 | 50 | 40 |

T_{hot} (h) | 377 | 388 | 390 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lambert, H.; Roche, R.; Jemeï, S.; Ortega, P.; Hissel, D.
Combined Cooling and Power Management Strategy for a Standalone House Using Hydrogen and Solar Energy. *Hydrogen* **2021**, *2*, 207-224.
https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen2020011

**AMA Style**

Lambert H, Roche R, Jemeï S, Ortega P, Hissel D.
Combined Cooling and Power Management Strategy for a Standalone House Using Hydrogen and Solar Energy. *Hydrogen*. 2021; 2(2):207-224.
https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen2020011

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lambert, Hugo, Robin Roche, Samir Jemeï, Pascal Ortega, and Daniel Hissel.
2021. "Combined Cooling and Power Management Strategy for a Standalone House Using Hydrogen and Solar Energy" *Hydrogen* 2, no. 2: 207-224.
https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrogen2020011