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Eng, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 4 articles

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Article
Determining the Correlation between Particulate Matter PM10 and Meteorological Factors
Eng 2022, 3(3), 343-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030025 - 09 Aug 2022
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Abstract
In the article, we point out the need to measure the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) in central Europe in a place of residence (a city and a small town), as PM has a negative impact on human health, especially that of [...] Read more.
In the article, we point out the need to measure the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) in central Europe in a place of residence (a city and a small town), as PM has a negative impact on human health, especially that of children and the elderly. Since different amounts of PM (mainly peaks) were measured at two locations at a distance of 35 m from each other, a control measurement was also performed to verify the conformity of the measurements of both sensors, which was confirmed with measured courses of quantities. Cases of strong correlation (very close relationship) between PM10 and meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, barometric pressure) were found, but cases of no correlation were found as well, probably due to the effect of wind, which has not been measured yet. The article also points to the fact that, especially during the autumn/winter/spring heating season, the air quality in a small village may be worse than in a large city. This was also confirmed by the detected AQI sub-indices from PM2.5 and PM10. Due to the current rise in prices of gas and electricity, the use of wood combustion as a heating source is nowadays becoming increasingly more attractive, which may contribute to the worsening of the air quality in the future. Full article
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Article
Monitoring Soil Degradation Processes for Ecological Compensation in the Izmir Institute of Technology Campus (Turkey)
Eng 2022, 3(3), 325-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030024 - 09 Jul 2022
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Abstract
Monitoring changing environmental conditions for short-term periods is a key aspect of adaptive urban planning. Unfortunately, the official environmental datasets are often produced at too large time intervals, and sometimes the speed of urban transformation requires real-time monitoring data. In this work we [...] Read more.
Monitoring changing environmental conditions for short-term periods is a key aspect of adaptive urban planning. Unfortunately, the official environmental datasets are often produced at too large time intervals, and sometimes the speed of urban transformation requires real-time monitoring data. In this work we employed ESRI ArcGIS (ver. 10.8.1) to process two normalized difference vegetation indices for the campus area of the Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey). The area of this campus constitutes an optimal site for testing whether alterations to the soil due to excavation and new construction can be monitored in small areas of land. We downloaded two different Sentinel acquisitions from the Copernicus ONDA DİAS platform: one taken on 28 March 2021 and the second taken on 13 March 2022. We processed the images while elaborating the normalized difference vegetation index for both years and compared them. Results demonstrate that all major and minor soil degradations on the campus during the intervening year were detected and empirically quantified in terms of NDVİ reduction (abrupt changes). These findings confirm that detailed seasonal environmental monitoring of every part of the world is now possible using semi-automatic procedures to process original Sentinel data and recommend site-specific ecological compensation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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Article
Evaluation of the Technological Properties of Soil–Cement Bricks with Incorporation of Coconut Fiber Powder
Eng 2022, 3(3), 311-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030023 - 01 Jul 2022
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Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of soil by different percentages of coconut fiber powder in the manufacture of soil–cement bricks. The reference mix ratio of 10:1 (soil:cement) in volume was used for the manufacture of [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of soil by different percentages of coconut fiber powder in the manufacture of soil–cement bricks. The reference mix ratio of 10:1 (soil:cement) in volume was used for the manufacture of bricks, in addition to the partial replacement of soil mass by 5, 10, and 15% of coconut fiber. The characterization of the raw materials was performed with the analysis of the granulometry, together with technological tests, such as mechanical compressive strength and water absorption. As a result, it was observed that the soil has 34.30% clay and 62.80% sand, characterizing a sandy-clay soil type and the coconut fiber powder was characterized as a fine aggregate. The mechanical compressive strength tests showed a decrease in their average values according to the increase in the incorporation of coconut fiber into the bricks. It was concluded that the results of the mechanical compressive strength and some of the water absorption are in disagreement with the Brazilian technical standard. This conclusion corroborates other studies that show the difficulty in standardizing reference mixtures and working with soil, which is a highly heterogeneous material. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Hole Quality, Thermal Analysis, and Chip Formation during Dry Drilling Process of Gray Cast Iron ASTM A48
Eng 2022, 3(3), 301-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030022 - 27 Jun 2022
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The cutting parameters in drilling operations are important for high-quality holes and productivity improvement in any manufacturing industry. This study investigates the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on temperature, surface roughness, hole size, circularity, and chip formation during dry drilling of [...] Read more.
The cutting parameters in drilling operations are important for high-quality holes and productivity improvement in any manufacturing industry. This study investigates the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on temperature, surface roughness, hole size, circularity, and chip formation during dry drilling of gray cast iron ASTM A48. The results showed that the temperature increased as spindle speed and feed rate increased. The surface roughness had an inverse relationship with the spindle speed and direct relation with the feed rate. Furthermore, hole size increased with increased spindle speed and decreased as the feed rate increased, while hole circularity decreased with increasing both the spindle speed and feed rate. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the spindle speed had the highest percentage contribution of 56.24% on temperature, followed by the feed rate with 42.35%. The surface roughness was highly influenced by the feed rate and the spindle speed with 55% and 44.12%, respectively. While the hole size was highly influenced by the feed rate with a 74.18% percentage contribution, and the contribution of spindle speed was 21.36%. In addition, the feed rate has a percentage contribution of 70.82% on circularity, which is higher than the spindle speed of 24.26% percentage contribution. The results also showed that thick and discontinuous chips were generated at higher feed rates, while long continuous chips were produced at high spindle speeds. Full article
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