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Eng, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The Jiles–Atherton model is wide-spread in the hysteresis description of magnetic materials. However, determination of model parameters is difficult as it involves numerical integration. Hence, stochastic optimization has been used to explore the wide ranges of these parameters to identify the parameter values that minimize the error between desired and actual hysteresis curves. Due to the time-consuming nature of these optimization techniques, we explore the range of the parameters using a space-filling design. This design provides a significant reduction (by about 85%) of the parametric range that the optimization algorithms must explore, thereby reducing the time required to identify the optimal parameters. View this paper
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14 pages, 1825 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Siting, Operations, and Transportation Considerations for Licensing Fission Batteries in the United States
by DaeHo Lee and Mihai A. Diaconeasa
Eng 2022, 3(3), 373-386; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030027 - 4 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Nuclear energy is currently in the spotlight as a future energy source all over the world amid the global warming crisis. In the current state of miniaturization, through the development of advanced reactors, such as small modular reactors (SMRs) and micro-reactors, a fission [...] Read more.
Nuclear energy is currently in the spotlight as a future energy source all over the world amid the global warming crisis. In the current state of miniaturization, through the development of advanced reactors, such as small modular reactors (SMRs) and micro-reactors, a fission battery is inspired by the idea that nuclear energy can be used by ordinary people using the “plug-and-play” concept, such as chemical batteries. As for design requirements, fission batteries must be economical, standardized, installed, unattended, and reliable. Meanwhile, the commercialization of reactors is regulated by national bodies, such as the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). At an international level, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) oversees the safe and peaceful use of nuclear power. However, regulations currently face a significant gap in terms of their applicability to advanced non-light water reactors (non-LWRs). Therefore, this study investigates the regulatory gaps in the licensing of fission batteries concerning safety in terms of siting, autonomous operation, and transportation, and suggests response strategies to supplement them. To figure out the applicability of the current licensing framework to fission batteries, we reviewed the U.S. NRC Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and IAEA INSAG-12. To address siting issues, we explored the non-power reactor (NPR) approach for site restrictions and the permit-by-rule (PBR) approach for excessive time burdens. In addition, we discussed how the development of an advanced human-system interface augmented with artificial intelligence and monitored by personnel for fission batteries may enable successful exemptions from the current regulatory operation staffing requirements. Finally, we discovered that no transportation regulatory challenge exists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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9 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
Efficient Identification of Jiles–Atherton Model Parameters Using Space-Filling Designs and Genetic Algorithms
by Varun Khemani, Michael H. Azarian and Michael G. Pecht
Eng 2022, 3(3), 364-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030026 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
The Jiles–Atherton model is widespread in the hysteresis description of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, magneto strictive, and piezoelectric materials. However, the determination of model parameters is not straightforward because the model involves numerical integration and the solving of ordinary differential equations, both of which are [...] Read more.
The Jiles–Atherton model is widespread in the hysteresis description of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, magneto strictive, and piezoelectric materials. However, the determination of model parameters is not straightforward because the model involves numerical integration and the solving of ordinary differential equations, both of which are error prone. As a result, stochastic optimization techniques have been used to explore the vast ranges of these parameters in an effort to identify the parameter values that minimize the error differential between experimental and modelled hysteresis curves. Because of the time-consuming nature of these optimization techniques, this paper explores the design space of the parameters using a space-filling design. This design provides a narrower range of parameters to look at with optimization algorithms, thereby reducing the time required to identify the optimal Jiles–Atherton model parameters. This procedure can also be carried out without using expensive hysteresis measurement devices, provided the desired transformer’s secondary voltage is known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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21 pages, 5120 KiB  
Article
Determining the Correlation between Particulate Matter PM10 and Meteorological Factors
by Simona Kirešová and Milan Guzan
Eng 2022, 3(3), 343-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030025 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3267
Abstract
In the article, we point out the need to measure the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) in central Europe in a place of residence (a city and a small town), as PM has a negative impact on human health, especially that of [...] Read more.
In the article, we point out the need to measure the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) in central Europe in a place of residence (a city and a small town), as PM has a negative impact on human health, especially that of children and the elderly. Since different amounts of PM (mainly peaks) were measured at two locations at a distance of 35 m from each other, a control measurement was also performed to verify the conformity of the measurements of both sensors, which was confirmed with measured courses of quantities. Cases of strong correlation (very close relationship) between PM10 and meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, barometric pressure) were found, but cases of no correlation were found as well, probably due to the effect of wind, which has not been measured yet. The article also points to the fact that, especially during the autumn/winter/spring heating season, the air quality in a small village may be worse than in a large city. This was also confirmed by the detected AQI sub-indices from PM2.5 and PM10. Due to the current rise in prices of gas and electricity, the use of wood combustion as a heating source is nowadays becoming increasingly more attractive, which may contribute to the worsening of the air quality in the future. Full article
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18 pages, 6802 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Soil Degradation Processes for Ecological Compensation in the Izmir Institute of Technology Campus (Turkey)
by Stefano Salata and Virginia Thompson Couch
Eng 2022, 3(3), 325-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030024 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2023
Abstract
Monitoring changing environmental conditions for short-term periods is a key aspect of adaptive urban planning. Unfortunately, the official environmental datasets are often produced at too large time intervals, and sometimes the speed of urban transformation requires real-time monitoring data. In this work we [...] Read more.
Monitoring changing environmental conditions for short-term periods is a key aspect of adaptive urban planning. Unfortunately, the official environmental datasets are often produced at too large time intervals, and sometimes the speed of urban transformation requires real-time monitoring data. In this work we employed ESRI ArcGIS (ver. 10.8.1) to process two normalized difference vegetation indices for the campus area of the Izmir Institute of Technology (Turkey). The area of this campus constitutes an optimal site for testing whether alterations to the soil due to excavation and new construction can be monitored in small areas of land. We downloaded two different Sentinel acquisitions from the Copernicus ONDA DİAS platform: one taken on 28 March 2021 and the second taken on 13 March 2022. We processed the images while elaborating the normalized difference vegetation index for both years and compared them. Results demonstrate that all major and minor soil degradations on the campus during the intervening year were detected and empirically quantified in terms of NDVİ reduction (abrupt changes). These findings confirm that detailed seasonal environmental monitoring of every part of the world is now possible using semi-automatic procedures to process original Sentinel data and recommend site-specific ecological compensation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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14 pages, 3107 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Technological Properties of Soil–Cement Bricks with Incorporation of Coconut Fiber Powder
by Gabriela Machado Guimarães Ferreira, Daiane Cecchin, Izabella Christynne Ribeiro Pinto Valadão, Tulane Rodrigues da Silva, Dirlane de Fátima do Carmo, Cristina Moll Hüther, Flávio Ferreira and Afonso Rangel Garcez de Azevedo
Eng 2022, 3(3), 311-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030023 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5090
Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of soil by different percentages of coconut fiber powder in the manufacture of soil–cement bricks. The reference mix ratio of 10:1 (soil:cement) in volume was used for the manufacture of [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of soil by different percentages of coconut fiber powder in the manufacture of soil–cement bricks. The reference mix ratio of 10:1 (soil:cement) in volume was used for the manufacture of bricks, in addition to the partial replacement of soil mass by 5, 10, and 15% of coconut fiber. The characterization of the raw materials was performed with the analysis of the granulometry, together with technological tests, such as mechanical compressive strength and water absorption. As a result, it was observed that the soil has 34.30% clay and 62.80% sand, characterizing a sandy-clay soil type and the coconut fiber powder was characterized as a fine aggregate. The mechanical compressive strength tests showed a decrease in their average values according to the increase in the incorporation of coconut fiber into the bricks. It was concluded that the results of the mechanical compressive strength and some of the water absorption are in disagreement with the Brazilian technical standard. This conclusion corroborates other studies that show the difficulty in standardizing reference mixtures and working with soil, which is a highly heterogeneous material. Full article
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10 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Hole Quality, Thermal Analysis, and Chip Formation during Dry Drilling Process of Gray Cast Iron ASTM A48
by Numan Habib, Aamer Sharif, Aqib Hussain, Muhammad Aamir, Khaled Giasin and Danil Yurievich Pimenov
Eng 2022, 3(3), 301-310; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3030022 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The cutting parameters in drilling operations are important for high-quality holes and productivity improvement in any manufacturing industry. This study investigates the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on temperature, surface roughness, hole size, circularity, and chip formation during dry drilling of [...] Read more.
The cutting parameters in drilling operations are important for high-quality holes and productivity improvement in any manufacturing industry. This study investigates the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on temperature, surface roughness, hole size, circularity, and chip formation during dry drilling of gray cast iron ASTM A48. The results showed that the temperature increased as spindle speed and feed rate increased. The surface roughness had an inverse relationship with the spindle speed and direct relation with the feed rate. Furthermore, hole size increased with increased spindle speed and decreased as the feed rate increased, while hole circularity decreased with increasing both the spindle speed and feed rate. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the spindle speed had the highest percentage contribution of 56.24% on temperature, followed by the feed rate with 42.35%. The surface roughness was highly influenced by the feed rate and the spindle speed with 55% and 44.12%, respectively. While the hole size was highly influenced by the feed rate with a 74.18% percentage contribution, and the contribution of spindle speed was 21.36%. In addition, the feed rate has a percentage contribution of 70.82% on circularity, which is higher than the spindle speed of 24.26% percentage contribution. The results also showed that thick and discontinuous chips were generated at higher feed rates, while long continuous chips were produced at high spindle speeds. Full article
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