Assessment of Quality of Fresh Concrete Delivered at Varying Temperatures
1.1. Main Issues Due to Hot Weather Concreting
1.2. Main Practices to Prevent and Mitigate Hot Weather Concreting Issues
2. Methodology and Data Collection
- Design compressive strength (psi);
- Actual compressive strength f’c after testing of each sample; the average for each age is made afterwards (psi);
- Age of each sample testing (days);
- Fresh concrete temperature at the time of pouring (°F);
- Air temperature at the time of pouring (°F);
- Slump determined on site (in.);
- Water added on site (gal);
- Number of tested concrete cylinders;
- Diameters of tested concrete cylinders (in.).
2.2. Raw Data Collection
3. Analysis and Results
3.1. Compressive Strength
3.1.1. Relation between Compressive Strength and Air Temperature
3.1.2. Relation between Compressive Strength and Concrete Temperature
3.2. Ratio of Compressive Strength to Design Strength
3.2.1. The Relationship between Compressive Strength to Design Strength and Air Temperature
3.2.2. The Relationship between the Ratio of Compressive Strength to Design Strength and Concrete Temperature
3.3.1. The Relationship between Slump in the Field and Air Temperature
3.3.2. The Relationship between Slump in the Field and Concrete Temperature
3.4. Air versus Fresh Concrete Temperatures
- The air temperature in which the fresh concrete is poured has an effect on the compressive strength of the concrete. For a design compressive strength of 21 MPa (3000 psi), the highest compressive strength recorded for the specimens that were collected from the job site when the air temperature was around 18 °C (65 °F). For 31 MPa (4500 psi) design strength, the compressive strength fluctuated but did not show a significant trend.
- The ratio of the compressive strength over design strength fluctuated between 0.5 and 1.5 for the majority of the specimens when the local air temperature changed between 4 °C (40 °F) and 38 °C (100 °F).
- The ratio of the compressive strength to design strength was between 0.5 and 2.0 when the fresh concrete temperature was kept between 10° and 32 °C (50° and 90 °F).
- The slump value increased with the increase in the air temperature for the 21 MPa (3000 psi) design strength and fluctuated around 4 inch for 31 MPa (4500 psi) design strength.
- Fresh concrete’s temperature and air temperature are similar when they are in the range of 60 to 80 °F. Therefore, to limit the use of additional water or admixtures in, concrete should be poured when the air temperature during the pour is in the range of 16° and 27 °C (60° to 80 °F). This range implies a concrete temperature during pour between 60 to 80 °F, which is lower than the maximum allowable fresh concrete temperature specified in the ACI-305.1-06 “Specification for Hot Weather Concreting”.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Design Strength (psi)||Age of Testing (Days)||Number of Records|
|Design f’c||Air Temperature||Concrete Temperature||Slump|
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Saidi, M.; Jadidi, K.; Karakouzian, M. Assessment of Quality of Fresh Concrete Delivered at Varying Temperatures. CivilEng 2022, 3, 135-146. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3010009
Saidi M, Jadidi K, Karakouzian M. Assessment of Quality of Fresh Concrete Delivered at Varying Temperatures. CivilEng. 2022; 3(1):135-146. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3010009Chicago/Turabian Style
Saidi, Maroua, Kazem Jadidi, and Moses Karakouzian. 2022. "Assessment of Quality of Fresh Concrete Delivered at Varying Temperatures" CivilEng 3, no. 1: 135-146. https://doi.org/10.3390/civileng3010009