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Endocrines, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2020) – 3 articles

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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Multiple Roles of Prostaglandin E2 Receptors in Female Reproduction
Endocrines 2020, 1(1), 22-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines1010003 - 06 May 2020
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Abstract
Among prostaglandins, Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (PGE2) is considered especially important for decidualization, ovulation, implantation and pregnancy. Four major PGE2 receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), mediate various PGE2 effects via their coupling to distinct signaling pathways. [...] Read more.
Among prostaglandins, Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (PGE2) is considered especially important for decidualization, ovulation, implantation and pregnancy. Four major PGE2 receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), mediate various PGE2 effects via their coupling to distinct signaling pathways. This review summarizes up-to-date literatures on the role of prostaglandin E2 receptors in female reproduction, which could provide a broad perspective to guide further research in this field. PGE2 plays an indispensable role in decidualization, ovulation, implantation and pregnancy. However, the precise mechanism of Prostaglandin E2 (EP) receptors in the female reproductive system is still limited. More investigations should be performed on the mechanism of EP receptors in the pathological states, and the possibility of EP agonists or antagonists clinically used in improving reproductive disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Eating While Walking on Blood Glucose Concentrations
Endocrines 2020, 1(1), 13-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines1010002 - 10 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Eating while walking is a commonly growing practice in the United States, in part due to an increase in the number of convenient dietary products (i.e., snack bars, shakes, drinks, etc.). Although eating while walking has been shown to increase total food consumption [...] Read more.
Eating while walking is a commonly growing practice in the United States, in part due to an increase in the number of convenient dietary products (i.e., snack bars, shakes, drinks, etc.). Although eating while walking has been shown to increase total food consumption and weight gain, the acute effects of eating while walking on blood glucose (BG) concentrations are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of eating while walking on BG. Twenty-two apparently healthy, male, physically active (PA, n = 10) and sedentary (Sed, n = 12) individuals volunteered for this study. Participants randomly performed the control [sit+snack (SS)] and experimental [walk+snack (WS)] protocol, with one week between protocols. Both protocols showed a significant increase in post-BG concentrations [SS (p < 0.001); WS (p < 0.01)], but post-BG concentrations for WS were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than SS. During SS, significantly higher post-BG concentrations were exhibited for the PA (p < 0.05) and Sed (p < 0.01) groups, whereas the WS protocol post-BG concentrations were significantly increased for the Sed group (p < 0.01). Lastly, individuals who exercised more and had a lower body mass index (BMI) were significantly correlated to lower BG concentrations in response to the 47 g carbohydrate (CHO) snack. However, these data are preliminary and may need further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Diagnostic Value of Chromogranin A in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms is Potentiated by Clinical Factors and Inflammatory Markers
Endocrines 2020, 1(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/endocrines1010001 - 05 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Objective: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogenous group of indolent tumors, with variable clinical behavior and steadily rising incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory factors that contribute in predicting the aggressiveness and invasiveness of NENs. Special [...] Read more.
Objective: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogenous group of indolent tumors, with variable clinical behavior and steadily rising incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and laboratory factors that contribute in predicting the aggressiveness and invasiveness of NENs. Special focus is given to clinical parameters that would enhance the diagnostic value of chromogranin A (CgA), via formalizing an integrated probability model, which would contribute to the timely and accurate identification of patients at high risk for metastatic disease at initial diagnosis. Designs and Methods: We identified a total of 93 patients with NENs, recruited at a specialized academic center in Athens, Greece. Anthropometric, clinical, laboratory, and pathological data were obtained from every patient before any therapeutic intervention. Results: Age over 50 years and male gender were accompanied by increased risk for metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Additionally, when these parameters were combined with CgA levels, they were shown to enhance the predictive capacity of CgA. Different patient scenarios combining age, gender, and CgA levels are associated with different probabilities for metastatic disease, demonstrated schematically in a gradually escalating model, as age and CgA levels increase in both males and females. The lowest risk is observed in women aged <50 years old with CgA levels <200 ng/dl (6.5%), while the highest one is in males over 50 years old with CgA > 200 ng/dl (62.9%). Finally, it was shown that c-reactive protein (CRP) can predict disease extent at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: CgA levels can not only be used as a direct predictor of tumor load in patients with NENs, but also, when interpolated with the effects of age and gender, cumulatively predict whether a NEN would be metastatic or not at the time of initial diagnosis, via a risk-escalating probability model. Full article
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