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Article

A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Optical Sciences Group, University of Twente, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Optics 2020, 1(2), 175-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/opt1020014
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 11 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fabrication and Applications of Photonic Micro-Devices)
In this work, we present a feasibility study of integrated optofluidic chips to measure the ionic content in water using differential absorption spectroscopy. The second overtone of the OH-stretch vibration of water is used as indicator for both the type and concentration of the dissolved ions. The optofluidic chips are based on silicon nitride (TripleX) containing Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZI) with two 5 cm sensing paths for the sample and reference arms, respectively. Simulations show that, theoretically, the determination of both the type and concentration of a mixture of four electrolytes is possible with the techniques presented. However, the performance of the chips deviated from the expected results due to the insufficient reproducibility and precision in the fabrication process. Therefore, at this early stage, the chips presented here could only determine the ion concentration, but not differentiate between the different ion types. Still, this work represents the first steps towards the realization of an online and real-time sensor of ionic content in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: interferometry; near IR spectroscopy; optofluidic chip interferometry; near IR spectroscopy; optofluidic chip
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MDPI and ACS Style

Steen, G.W.; Wexler, A.D.; Fuchs, E.C.; Offerhaus, H.L. A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy. Optics 2020, 1, 175-190. https://doi.org/10.3390/opt1020014

AMA Style

Steen GW, Wexler AD, Fuchs EC, Offerhaus HL. A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy. Optics. 2020; 1(2):175-190. https://doi.org/10.3390/opt1020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steen, Gerwin W., Adam D. Wexler, Elmar C. Fuchs, and Herman L. Offerhaus 2020. "A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy" Optics 1, no. 2: 175-190. https://doi.org/10.3390/opt1020014

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