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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Evaporation-Induced Instabilities Using Volumetric Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry

1
Optical Diagnostic Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Optics 2020, 1(1), 52-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/opt1010005
Received: 26 December 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 16 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics in Engineering)
The three-dimensional (3D) flow below the interface of an evaporating liquid at a low pressure is visualized and quantified using scanning particle image velocimetry. The technique presented highlights the use of a single camera and a relatively fast moving laser sheet to image the flow for an application where using more than one camera is difficult. The technique allows collection of the full three-dimensional velocity vector map over the whole liquid volume. The out-of-plane component of the velocity has been determined using two different processing approaches: (i) deriving the full vector from a 3D cross-correlation of the particle volumes and (ii) applying the continuity equation to determine out-of-plane velocities from the calculated in-plane velocity vector fields. The results obtained from both methods showed good agreement with each other. The 3D velocity field reveals the existence of a torus shaped vortex below the evaporating meniscus that was induced by the exposure of the cold liquid to the warmer solid walls. The velocity data also shows that the maximum velocity occurs below the interface, not at the interface which highlights that the observed vortex is not driven by thermocapillary forces that usually govern the flow during evaporation at smaller scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: volumetric velocity reconstruction; scanning particle image velocimetry; single camera volume PIV; continuity equation; low pressure evaporation volumetric velocity reconstruction; scanning particle image velocimetry; single camera volume PIV; continuity equation; low pressure evaporation
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Kazemi, M.A.; Elliott, J.A.W.; Nobes, D.S. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Evaporation-Induced Instabilities Using Volumetric Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry. Optics 2020, 1, 52-70.

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