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AI, Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 6 articles

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24 pages, 5492 KiB  
Essay
R-KG: A Novel Method for Implementing a Robot Intelligent Service
by Wu Hao, Jiao Menglin, Tian Guohui, Ma Qing and Liu Guoliang
AI 2020, 1(1), 117-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010006 - 2 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3871
Abstract
Aiming to solve the problem of environmental information being difficult to characterize when an intelligent service is used, knowledge graphs are used to express environmental information when performing intelligent services. Here, we specially design a kind of knowledge graph for environment expression referred [...] Read more.
Aiming to solve the problem of environmental information being difficult to characterize when an intelligent service is used, knowledge graphs are used to express environmental information when performing intelligent services. Here, we specially design a kind of knowledge graph for environment expression referred to as a robot knowledge graph (R-KG). The main work of a R-KG is to integrate the diverse semantic information in the environment and pay attention to the relationship at the instance level. Also, through the efficient knowledge organization of a R-KG, robots can fully understand the environment. The R-KG firstly integrates knowledge from different sources to form a unified and standardized representation of a knowledge graph. Then, the deep logical relationship hidden in the knowledge graph is explored. To this end, a knowledge reasoning model based on a Markov logic network is proposed to realize the self-developmental ability of the knowledge graph and to further enrich it. Finally, as the strength of environment expression directly affects the efficiency of robots performing services, in order to verify the efficiency of the R-KG, it is used here as the semantic map that can be directly used by a robot for performing intelligent services. The final results prove that the R-KG can effectively express environmental information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section AI Systems: Theory and Applications)
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25 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Detection of Anomalies in Large-Scale Cyberattacks Using Fuzzy Neural Networks
by Paulo Vitor de Campos Souza, Augusto Junio Guimarães, Thiago Silva Rezende, Vinicius Jonathan Silva Araujo and Vanessa Souza Araujo
AI 2020, 1(1), 92-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010005 - 7 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4612
Abstract
The fuzzy neural networks are hybrid structures that can act in several contexts of the pattern classification, including the detection of failures and anomalous behaviors. This paper discusses the use of an artificial intelligence model based on the association between fuzzy logic and [...] Read more.
The fuzzy neural networks are hybrid structures that can act in several contexts of the pattern classification, including the detection of failures and anomalous behaviors. This paper discusses the use of an artificial intelligence model based on the association between fuzzy logic and training of artificial neural networks to recognize anomalies in transactions involved in the context of computer networks and cyberattacks. In addition to verifying the accuracy of the model, fuzzy rules were obtained through knowledge from the massive datasets to form expert systems. The acquired rules allow the creation of intelligent systems in high-level languages with a robust level of identification of anomalies in Internet transactions, and the accuracy of the results of the test confirms that the fuzzy neural networks can act in anomaly detection in high-security attacks in computer networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: A Data-Driven Approach)
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24 pages, 4061 KiB  
Article
Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Predictive Insights for Ameliorating Global Malnutrition: A Human-Centric AI-Thinking Approach
by Meng-Leong How and Yong Jiet Chan
AI 2020, 1(1), 68-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010004 - 3 Feb 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4673
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, malnutrition is one of the most serious but least-addressed development challenges in the world. Malnutrition refers to the malfunction or imbalance of nutrition, which could be influenced not only by under-nourishment, but [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, malnutrition is one of the most serious but least-addressed development challenges in the world. Malnutrition refers to the malfunction or imbalance of nutrition, which could be influenced not only by under-nourishment, but also by over-nourishment. The significance of this paper is that it shows how artificial intelligence (AI) can be democratized to enable analysts who are not trained in computer science to also use human-centric explainable-AI to simulate the possible dynamics between malnutrition, health and population indicators in a dataset collected from 180 countries by the World Bank. This AI-based human-centric probabilistic reasoning approach can also be used as a cognitive scaffold to educe (draw out) AI-Thinking in analysts to ask further questions and gain deeper insights. In this study, a rudimentary beginner-friendly AI-based Bayesian predictive modeling approach was used to demonstrate how human-centric probabilistic reasoning could be utilized to analyze the dynamics of global malnutrition and optimize conditions for achieving the best-case scenario. Conditions of the worst-case “Black Swan” scenario were also simulated, and they could be used to inform stakeholders to prevent them from happening. Thus, the nutritional and health status of vulnerable populations could be ameliorated. Full article
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40 pages, 4578 KiB  
Review
Deep Learning for Lung Cancer Nodules Detection and Classification in CT Scans
by Diego Riquelme and Moulay A. Akhloufi
AI 2020, 1(1), 28-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010003 - 8 Jan 2020
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 23036
Abstract
Detecting malignant lung nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans is a hard and time-consuming task for radiologists. To alleviate this burden, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed. In recent years, deep learning approaches have shown impressive results outperforming classical methods in various [...] Read more.
Detecting malignant lung nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans is a hard and time-consuming task for radiologists. To alleviate this burden, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed. In recent years, deep learning approaches have shown impressive results outperforming classical methods in various fields. Nowadays, researchers are trying different deep learning techniques to increase the performance of CAD systems in lung cancer screening with computed tomography. In this work, we review recent state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms and architectures proposed as CAD systems for lung cancer detection. They are divided into two categories—(1) Nodule detection systems, which from the original CT scan detect candidate nodules; and (2) False positive reduction systems, which from a set of given candidate nodules classify them into benign or malignant tumors. The main characteristics of the different techniques are presented, and their performance is analyzed. The CT lung datasets available for research are also introduced. Comparison between the different techniques is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical & Healthcare AI)
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17 pages, 4279 KiB  
Article
Computing the Affective-Aesthetic Potential of Literary Texts
by Arthur M. Jacobs and Annette Kinder
AI 2020, 1(1), 11-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010002 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5211
Abstract
In this paper, we compute the affective-aesthetic potential (AAP) of literary texts by using a simple sentiment analysis tool called SentiArt. In contrast to other established tools, SentiArt is based on publicly available vector space models (VSMs) and requires no emotional dictionary, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we compute the affective-aesthetic potential (AAP) of literary texts by using a simple sentiment analysis tool called SentiArt. In contrast to other established tools, SentiArt is based on publicly available vector space models (VSMs) and requires no emotional dictionary, thus making it applicable in any language for which VSMs have been made available (>150 so far) and avoiding issues of low coverage. In a first study, the AAP values of all words of a widely used lexical databank for German were computed and the VSM’s ability in representing concrete and more abstract semantic concepts was demonstrated. In a second study, SentiArt was used to predict ~2800 human word valence ratings and shown to have a high predictive accuracy (R2 > 0.5, p < 0.0001). A third study tested the validity of SentiArt in predicting emotional states over (narrative) time using human liking ratings from reading a story. Again, the predictive accuracy was highly significant: R2adj = 0.46, p < 0.0001, establishing the SentiArt tool as a promising candidate for lexical sentiment analyses at both the micro- and macrolevels, i.e., short and long literary materials. Possibilities and limitations of lexical VSM-based sentiment analyses of diverse complex literary texts are discussed in the light of these results. Full article
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10 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Deep Learning for Super-Resolution in a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope
by Zehua Gao, Wei Ma, Sijiang Huang, Peiyao Hua and Chuwen Lan
AI 2020, 1(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ai1010001 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5079
Abstract
A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) is a complex scanning electron microscope with ultra-high-resolution image scanning, instant printing, and output storage capabilities. FESEMs have been widely used in fields such as materials science, biology, and medical science. However, owing to the balance [...] Read more.
A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) is a complex scanning electron microscope with ultra-high-resolution image scanning, instant printing, and output storage capabilities. FESEMs have been widely used in fields such as materials science, biology, and medical science. However, owing to the balance between resolution and field of view (FOV), when locating a target using an FESEM, it is difficult to view specific details in an image with a large FOV and high resolution simultaneously. This paper presents a deep neural network to realize super-resolution of an FESEM image. This technology can effectively improve the resolution of the acquired image without changing the physical structure of the FESEM, thus resolving the constraint problem between the resolution and FOV. Experimental results show that the apply of a deep neural network only requires a single image acquired by an FESEM to be the input. A higher resolution image with a large FOV and excellent noise reduction is obtained within a short period of time. To verify the effect of the model numerically, we evaluated the image quality by using the peak signal-to-noise ratio value and structural similarity index value, which can reach 26.88 dB and 0.7740, respectively. We believe that this technology will improve the quality of FESEM imaging and be of significance in various application fields. Full article
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