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Article

Climate and Local Hydrography Underlie Recent Regime Shifts in Plankton Communities off Galicia (NW Spain)

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, 15001 A Coruña, Spain
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Oceans 2020, 1(4), 181-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans1040014
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
A 29-year-long time series (1990–2018) of phyto- and zooplankton abundance and composition is analyzed to uncover regime shifts related to climate and local oceanography variability. At least two major shifts were identified: one between 1997 and 1998, affecting zooplankton group abundance, phytoplankton species assemblages and climatic series, and a second one between 2001 and 2002, affecting microzooplankton group abundance, mesozooplankton species assemblages and local hydrographic series. Upwelling variability was relatively less important than other climatic or local oceanographic variables for the definition of the regimes. Climate-related regimes were influenced by the dominance of cold and dry (1990–1997) vs. warm and wet (1998–2018) periods, and characterized by shifts from low to high life trait diversity in phytoplankton assemblages, and from low to high meroplankton dominance for mesozooplankton. Regimes related to local oceanography were defined by the shift from relatively low (1990–2001) to high (2002–2018) concentrations of nutrients provided by remineralization (or continental inputs) and biological production, and shifts from a low to high abundance of microzooplankton, and from a low to high trait diversity of mesozooplankton species assemblages. These results align with similar shifts described around the same time for most regions of the NE Atlantic. This study points out the different effects of large-scale vs. local environmental variations in shaping plankton assemblages at multiannual time scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoplankton; zooplankton; time series; regime shift; climate; nutrients phytoplankton; zooplankton; time series; regime shift; climate; nutrients
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/oceans/special_issues/ocean_science
    Description: Figure S1: Pearsons’ r correlations between series within each type, Figure S2: Time series of the second principal component of the PCA on each type of series. Supplementary Figure S3. Cluster of annual series of phytoplankton or mesozooplankton taxa. Table S1: List of original series along with mean, sd and trends. Table S2: List of original series of plankton taxa along with mean, sd and trends. Table S3: Loadings of the first (PC1) and second (PC2) principal components of the PCA for each type of series.
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 2
    Doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.885413
    Link: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.885413
    Description: Part of the original raw data for environmental variables ("hydrography series")
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 3
    Doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.908815
    Link: https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.908815
    Description: Part of the original raw data for plankton series
MDPI and ACS Style

Bode, A.; Álvarez, M.; García García, L.M.; Louro, M.Á.; Nieto-Cid, M.; Ruíz-Villarreal, M.; Varela, M.M. Climate and Local Hydrography Underlie Recent Regime Shifts in Plankton Communities off Galicia (NW Spain). Oceans 2020, 1, 181-197. https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans1040014

AMA Style

Bode A, Álvarez M, García García LM, Louro MÁ, Nieto-Cid M, Ruíz-Villarreal M, Varela MM. Climate and Local Hydrography Underlie Recent Regime Shifts in Plankton Communities off Galicia (NW Spain). Oceans. 2020; 1(4):181-197. https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans1040014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bode, Antonio, Marta Álvarez, Luz M. García García, Maria Á. Louro, Mar Nieto-Cid, Manuel Ruíz-Villarreal, and Marta M. Varela 2020. "Climate and Local Hydrography Underlie Recent Regime Shifts in Plankton Communities off Galicia (NW Spain)" Oceans 1, no. 4: 181-197. https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans1040014

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