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Quantum Reports 2019, 1(1), 3-11;

Quantum Blockchain Using Entanglement in Time

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
PDF [265 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]


We propose a conceptual design for a quantum blockchain. Our method involves encoding the blockchain into a temporal GHZ (Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger) state of photons that do not simultaneously coexist. It is shown that the entanglement in time, as opposed to an entanglement in space, provides the crucial quantum advantage. All the subcomponents of this system have already been shown to be experimentally realized. Furthermore, our encoding procedure can be interpreted as nonclassically influencing the past.
Keywords: entanglement in time; entanglement in space; blockchain; quantum blockchain entanglement in time; entanglement in space; blockchain; quantum blockchain

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rajan, D.; Visser, M. Quantum Blockchain Using Entanglement in Time. Quantum Reports 2019, 1, 3-11.

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