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Bacterial Endotoxins and Their Role in Periparturient Diseases of Dairy Cows: Mucosal Vaccine Perspectives
Comment published on 16 October 2020, see Dairy 2020, 1(3), 187-188.
Article

Maize and Grass Silage Feeding to Dairy Cows Combined with Different Concentrate Feed Proportions with a Special Focus on Mycotoxins, Shiga Toxin (stx)-Forming Escherichia coli and Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Genes: Implications for Animal Health and Food Safety

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Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
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Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 07743 Jena, Germany
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Chair of Animal Hygiene, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
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LKS mbH, 09577 Lichtenwalde, Germany
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Physiological Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover, 30173 Hannover, Germany
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Institute for Animal Science Physiology & Hygiene, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
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Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, Department of Agrobiotechnology, IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
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Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 07743 Jena, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
In memoriam.
Dairy 2020, 1(2), 91-125; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1020007
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 24 May 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
A feeding experiment was carried out with late-lactating cows over 12 weeks to evaluate the feeding value of a basic diet with maize and grass silage (MS, GS) when combined with varying portions of concentrate in the ration (20% and 60% on a dry matter basis) and to test the effects on health and performance, the transfer of important Fusarium toxins to blood and milk, the total and Shiga toxin (stx)-forming E. coli counts, and the presence of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) genes in rectal fecal samples. MS was contaminated by a broader spectrum of fungal and other metabolites compared to GS. MS contained higher concentrations of the important Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN). Blood and milk levels of DON and ZEN residues generally reflected the differences in exposure at a low level. Feeding of MS with 60% concentrate feed induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) associated with a marked drop in dry matter intake, fat corrected milk yield and a fat to protein ratio in milk of lower than 1. The SARA-associated higher ruminal LPS concentration did not affect the circulating concentrations of haptoglobin as an indicator of systemic inflammation. Lower rumen pH values in both MS-fed groups were associated with lower pH values, higher absolute E. coli counts and increased proportions of stx-positive E. coli in rectal feces. BoNT genes A, B, C, D, E and F remained undetectable in any of the fecal samples suggesting that feedstuffs were virtually free of the corresponding C. botulinum strains. In conclusion, maize feedstuff (silage, grains, starch-containing byproducts)-dominated rations for dairy cows should be avoided to reduce adverse effects on health and food safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy cow; mycotoxins; Shiga toxin (stx)-forming Escherichia coli; Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) genes; rumen acidosis; hindgut acidosis dairy cow; mycotoxins; Shiga toxin (stx)-forming Escherichia coli; Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) genes; rumen acidosis; hindgut acidosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dänicke, S.; Krenz, J.; Seyboldt, C.; Neubauer, H.; Frahm, J.; Kersten, S.; Meyer, K.; Saltzmann, J.; Richardt, W.; Breves, G.; Sauerwein, H.; Sulyok, M.; Meyer, U.; Geue, L. Maize and Grass Silage Feeding to Dairy Cows Combined with Different Concentrate Feed Proportions with a Special Focus on Mycotoxins, Shiga Toxin (stx)-Forming Escherichia coli and Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Genes: Implications for Animal Health and Food Safety. Dairy 2020, 1, 91-125. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1020007

AMA Style

Dänicke S, Krenz J, Seyboldt C, Neubauer H, Frahm J, Kersten S, Meyer K, Saltzmann J, Richardt W, Breves G, Sauerwein H, Sulyok M, Meyer U, Geue L. Maize and Grass Silage Feeding to Dairy Cows Combined with Different Concentrate Feed Proportions with a Special Focus on Mycotoxins, Shiga Toxin (stx)-Forming Escherichia coli and Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Genes: Implications for Animal Health and Food Safety. Dairy. 2020; 1(2):91-125. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1020007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dänicke, Sven, Julia Krenz, Christian Seyboldt, Heinrich Neubauer, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Karsten Meyer, Janine Saltzmann, Wolfram Richardt, Gerhard Breves, Helga Sauerwein, Michael Sulyok, Ulrich Meyer, and Lutz Geue. 2020. "Maize and Grass Silage Feeding to Dairy Cows Combined with Different Concentrate Feed Proportions with a Special Focus on Mycotoxins, Shiga Toxin (stx)-Forming Escherichia coli and Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Genes: Implications for Animal Health and Food Safety" Dairy 1, no. 2: 91-125. https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy1020007

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