The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism
Of all vulgar modes of escaping from the consideration of the effect of social and moral influences on the human mind, the most vulgar is that of attributing the diversities of conduct and character to inherent natural differences.—John Stuart Mill, 1848, Principles of Political Economy
2. Arguments for Why the Hereditarian Hypothesis is Racist
2.1. The Hereditarian Hypothesis is Racist Because There Is No Such Thing as Intelligence
Among psychologists working in this field there is no longer any substantial debate about the structure of human mental ability differences […] A general factor emerges that accounts for about half of the individual differences among the scores for a group of people, and there are group factors that are narrower abilities, and then very specific factors below that.
- High stability over the life-course: IQ measured at age 11 is correlated at r > 0.70 with IQ measured at age 77, meaning that between-individual differences in cognitive ability within cohort are largely preserved from childhood to old age .
2.2. The Hereditarian Hypothesis is Racist Because There Is no Such Thing as Race
Patterns of human genetic variation are influenced by mating patterns, and the latter are in turn influenced by geographic and cultural factors (e.g., mountain ranges, language, religious practices). Consequently, it is not surprising that human genetic variation, while correlated with geographic location, is not perfectly clinal.
- Evidence from comparing genetic clusters to racial identities: By genotyping a diverse sample of individuals at a sufficiently large number of genetic loci, and then subjecting the data to cluster analysis, it is possible to classify individuals by race with >95% accuracy [89,90,91,92]. As Edwards  pointed out, due to the correlation structure among loci, correctly classifying individuals by race is possible even though 85–90% of genetic variation is within races.
- Evidence from comparisons within and between clusters: When genetic clusters correspond to five major ancestral populations (Africans, Eurasians, East Asians, Amerindians and Australians), subpopulations separated by a given geographic distance are found to be more genetically similar if they are from the same cluster than if they are from different clusters .
- Evidence from comparisons across species: The amount of genetic variation between ancestral human populations is comparable to the amount of genetic variation between subspecies in some nonhuman animals for which there are recognised subspecies [74,78]. And in fact, overall human mitochondrial variation is about average within the animal kingdom .
- Evidence from anatomy and physiology: Ancestral human populations show differences in numerous anatomical and physiological traits [79,81,95,96]. Moreover, because the differences in such traits are correlated, it is often possible to classify skeletal remains by race with >90% accuracy, so long as a sufficiently large number of traits are measured [73,97,98,99].
2.3. The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist Because It Is Not Scientifically Plausible
2.3.1. It Is Patently False that All White People are Genetically Smarter than All Black People
2.3.2. There has not been Enough Time for Differences between Populations to Evolve
2.3.3. IQ is Polygenic, and It Takes Longer for Natural Selection to Work on Polygenic Traits
2.3.4. Average IQ Increased over the Course of the 20th Century, so Group Differences in IQ Must Be Explained by the Environment
2.3.5. IQ is not Like Height because More IQ Is Always Better
2.3.6. There is Absolutely No Evidence that Genes Contribute to IQ Differences between Populations
2.3.7. ‘No Serious Scholar Believes that Genes Contribute to IQ Differences between Populations’
2.3.8. IQ Differences between Populations are Obviously Explained by Factors Like Slavery and Colonialism
2.4. The Hereditarian Hypothesis is Racist Because IQ is Different from Other Traits
2.5. The Hereditarian Hypothesis is Racist Because It Could Only Be of Interest to Racists
2.6. ‘The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist because Hereditarian Scholars Have Said Racist Things or Supported Racist Policies’
2.7. The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist because It Was Used to Justify Racist Policies in the Past
2.8. The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist because It Could be Used to Justify Racist Policies in the Future
2.9. The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist because It Implies Low-Scoring Groups Deserve to be Poor
2.10. The Hereditarian Hypothesis Is Racist because It Implies Low-Scoring Groups Are Inferior to High-Scoring Groups
3.1. Describing a Particular Hereditarian Scholar as Racist
3.2. Suggestions for How to Move Forward in the Debate over Group Differences
- Recognise that equating the hereditarian hypothesis with racism holds our morals hostage to the facts. As numerous scholars have noted over the years (see ), equating the hereditarian hypothesis with racism implies that if group differences were ever shown to be genetic, then racism would be justified. Yet this is a fallacy, and one that has the potential to cause harm.
- Recognise that there are no necessary implications of group differences research. Scientific statements are logically independent from normative conclusions. This means that under some moral philosophies, confirmation of the hereditarian hypothesis would weaken the case for social intervention, but under other moral philosophies, it would strengthen the case for social intervention .
- Recognise that there are material costs to stifling debate around taboo topics. For example, suppressing group differences research could erode the public’s trust in other areas of science . In addition, some alternative explanations for group differences have also been used to justify policies of persecution and subjugation [18,22].
- Castigate researchers for their moral and political beliefs, not their scientific ones. If a researcher draws a normative implication from group differences research that is racist or in some other way objectionable, it may be reasonable to censure him on those grounds. But there should be a presumption against castigating researchers for their scientific beliefs .
- Attempt to falsify the hereditarian hypothesis. Although the hereditarian hypothesis should not be dismissed as racist, every attempt should be made to falsify it in the Popperian sense . This means that it should be tested as rigorously as possible: Scholars should not ignore the hereditarian hypothesis on the basis that it is too controversial.
Suppressing free inquiry is by its nature an expressive of contempt for truth by power. The truth can never be racist.
Conflicts of Interest
- Lynn, R.; Vanhanen, T. Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences; Ulster Institute for Social Research: London, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Jones, G. Hive Mind: How Your Nation’s IQ Matters So Much More Than Your Own; Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Rindermann, H. Cognitive Capitalism: Human Capital and the Well-Being of Nations; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Herrnstein, R.; Murray, C. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life; Free Press: New York, NY, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Rushton, J.P.; Jensen, A.R. Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability. Psychol. Public Policy Law 2005, 11, 235–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lynn, R. Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis; Washington Summit Publishers: Whitefish, MT, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Rindermann, H. The g-factor of international cognitive ability comparisons: The homogeneity of results in PISA, TIMSS, PIRLS and IQ-tests across nations. Eur. J. Pers. 2007, 21, 667–706. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lynn, R.; Vanhanen, T. National IQs: A review of their educational, cognitive, economic, political, demographic, sociological, epidemiological, geographic and climatic correlates. Intelligence 2012, 40, 226–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Becker, D. THE NIQ-DATASET V1.3—A Summary (Part II). View on IQ. 3 April 2018. Available online: http://archive.fo/eBWHZ (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Murray, C. The magnitude and components of change in the black-white IQ difference from 1920 to 1991: A birth cohort analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson standardizations. Intelligence 2007, 35, 305–318. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lynn, R. The Chosen People: A Study of Jewish Intelligence and Achievement; Washington Summit Publishers: Whitefish, MT, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J. A systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans. Intelligence 2010, 38, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nisbett, R.E.; Aronson, J.; Blair, C.; Dickens, W.; Flynn, J.; Halpern, D.F.; Turkheimer, E. Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments. Am. Psychol. 2012, 67, 130–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Flynn, J.R. Searching for justice: The discovery of IQ gains over time. Am. Psychol. 1999, 54, 5–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cottrell, J.M.; Newman, D.A.; Roisman, G.I. Explaining the Black-White gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact. J. Appl. Psychol. 2015, 100, 1713–1736. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gottfredson, L.S. What if the hereditarian hypothesis IS true? Psychol. Public Policy Law 2005, 11, 311–319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cochran, G.; Hardy, J.; Harpending, H. Natural history of Ashkenazi intelligence. J. Biosoc. Sci. 2006, 38, 659–693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pinker, S. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature; Penguin: London, UK, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Gottfredson, L.S. Resolute ignorance on race and Rushton. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2013, 55, 218–223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cofnas, N. Science Is Not Always ‘Self-Correcting’: Fact–Value Conflation and the Study of Intelligence. Found. Sci. 2016, 21, 477–492. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Winegard, B.; Winegard, B. Paranoid Egalitarian Meliorism: An Account of Bias in the Social Sciences. In Politics of Social Psychology; Crawford, J., Jussim, L., Eds.; Taylor & Francis: Abingdon, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Carl, N. How Stifling Debate Around Race, Genes and IQ Can Do Harm. Evol. Psychol. Sci. 2018, 4, 399–407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gottfredson, L.S. Logical fallacies used to dismiss the evidence on intelligence testing. In Correcting Fallacies about Educational and Psychological Testing; Phelps, R., Ed.; American Psychological Association: Washington, DC, USA, 2009; pp. 11–65. [Google Scholar]
- Pesta, B.J.; Mcdaniel, M.A.; Poznanski, P.J.; Degroot, T. Somebody Else’s Problem 1 Discounting IQ’s Relevance to Organizational Behavior: The ‘ Somebody Else’s Problem ’ in Management Education. Open Differ. Psychol. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Warne, R.T.; Astle, M.C.; Hill, J.C. What do undergraduates learn about human intelligence? An analysis of introductory psychology textbooks. Arch. Sci. Psychol. 2018, 6, 32–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dutton, E.; Figueredo, A.J.; Carl, N.; Debes, F.; Hertler, S.; Irwing, P.; Kura, K.; Lynn, R.; Madison, G.; Meisenberg, G.; et al. Communicating intelligence research: Media misrepresentation, the Gould Effect, and unexpected forces. Intelligence 2018, 70, 80–87. [Google Scholar]
- Boyle, G.J.; Stankov, L.; Martin, N.G.; Petrides, K.V.; Eysenck, M.W.; Ortet, G. Hans J. Eysenck and Raymond B. Cattell on intelligence and personality. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2016, 103, 40–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Pearson, R. Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe; Scott Townsend: Washington, DC, USA, 1991. [Google Scholar]
- Gottfredson, L.S. Lessons in academic freedom as lived experience. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2010, 49, 272–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nyborg, H. The Greatest Collective Scientific Fraud of the 20th Century: The Demolition of Differential Psychology and Eugenics. Mank. Q. 2011, 51, 241–268. [Google Scholar]
- Quillette. “Academics’ Mobbing of a Young Scholar Must be Denounced. Quillette. 7 December 2018. Available online: http://archive.fo/l3S1l (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Block, N.; Dworkin, G. IQ, Heritability and Inequality, Part 2. Philos. Public Aff. 1974, 4, 40–99. [Google Scholar]
- Kitcher, P. Vaulting Ambition; MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1985. [Google Scholar]
- Chomsky, N. The Fallacy of Richard Herrnstein’s IQ. In The IQ Controversy: Critical Readings; Block, N., Dworkin, G., Eds.; Pantheon Books: New York, NY, USA, 1976; Volume 3. [Google Scholar]
- Rose, S. Should scientists study race and IQ? NO: Science and society do not benefit. Nature 2009, 457, 786–788. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gillborn, D. Softly, softly: Genetics, intelligence and the hidden racism of the new geneism. J. Educ. Policy 2016, 31, 365–388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kourany, J.A. Should Some Knowledge Be Forbidden? The Case of Cognitive Differences Research. Philos. Sci. 2016, 83, 779–790. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ceci, S.; Williams, W. Darwin 200: Should scientists study race and IQ? YES: The scientific truth must be pursued. Nature 2009, 457, 788–789. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Anomaly, J. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief. J. Bioeth. Inq. 2017, 14, 287–297. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Jeffery, A.J.; Shackelford, T.K. Moral positions on publishing race differences in intelligence. J. Crim. Justice 2018, 59, 132–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Flynn, J.R. Academic freedom and race: You ought not to believe what you think may be true. J. Crim. Justice 2018, 59, 127–131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Meisenberg, G. Should Cognitive Differences Research by Forbidden? Available online: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/15659/ (accessed on 24 May 2019).
- Ryle, G. The Concept of Mind; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 1949. [Google Scholar]
- Spearman, C. ‘General Intelligence,’ Objectively Determined and Measured. Am. J. Psychol. 1904, 15, 201–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jensen, A. The G Factor: The Science of Mental Ability; Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Gardner, H. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 1983. [Google Scholar]
- Deary, I. Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Anonymous. Nassim Taleb on IQ. Available online: http://archive.fo/PCvgk (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Ritchie, S.J. How Clever Is It to Dismiss IQ Tests? Available online: https://aeon.co/ideas/how-clever-is-it-to-dismiss-iq-tests (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Johnson, W.; Bouchard, T.J.; Krueger, R.F.; McGue, M.; Gottesman, I.I. Just one g: Consistent results from three test batteries. Intelligence 2004, 32, 95–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johnson, W.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Bouchard, T.J., Jr. Still just 1 g: Consistent results from five test batteries. Intelligence 2008, 36, 81–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deary, I.J.; Brett, C.E. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947. Intelligence 2015, 50, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Plomin, R.; Fulker, D.W.; Corley, R.; DeFries, J.C. Nature, Nurture, and Cognitive Development from 1 to 16 Years: A Parent-Offspring Adoption Study. Psychol. Sci. 1997, 8, 442–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bouchard, T.; Lykken, D.; McGue, M.; Segal, N.; Tellegen, A. Sources of human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science 1990, 250, 223–228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Polderman, T.J.C.; Benyamin, B.; de Leeuw, C.A.; Sullivan, P.F.; van Bochoven, A.; Visscher, P.M.; Posthuma, D. Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nat. Genet. 2015, 47, 702–709. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hill, W.D.; Marioni, R.E.; Maghzian, O.; Ritchie, S.J.; Hagenaars, S.P.; McIntosh, A.M.; Gale, C.R.; Davies, G.; Deary, I.J. A combined analysis of genetically correlated traits identifies 187 loci and a role for neurogenesis and myelination in intelligence. Mol. Psychiatry 2018, 24, 169–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Plomin, R.; Deary, I. Genetics and intelligence differences: Five special findings. Mol. Psychiatry 2015, 20, 98–108. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haier, R.J. The Neuroscience of Intelligence; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Gignac, G.E.; Bates, T.C. Brain volume and intelligence: The moderating role of intelligence measurement quality. Intelligence 2017, 64, 18–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Deary, I. Intelligence. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2012, 63, 453–482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Strenze, T. Intelligence and success. In Handbook of Intelligence: Evolutionary Theory, Historical Perspective, and Current Concepts; Goldstein, S., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Lubinski, D. From Terman to Today: A Century of Findings on Intellectual Precocity. Rev. Educ. Res. 2016, 86, 900–944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Warne, R.T.; Burningham, C. Spearman’s g Found in 31 Non-Western Cultures: Strong Evidence that g is a Universal Trait. Psychol. Bull. 2018, 145, 237–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fernandes, H.B.F.; Woodley, M.A.; te Nijenhuis, J. Differences in cognitive abilities among primates are concentrated on G: Phenotypic and phylogenetic comparisons with two meta-analytical databases. Intelligence 2014, 46, 311–322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Matzel, L.D.; Sauce, B. Individual differences: Case studies of rodent and primate intelligence. J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Learn. Cogn. 2017, 43, 325–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arden, R.; Adams, M.J. A general intelligence factor in dogs. Intelligence 2016, 55, 79–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morning, A. ‘Everyone knows it’s a social construct’: Contemporary science and the nature of race. Sociol. Focus 2007, 40, 436–454. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coates, T. What We Mean When We Say ‘Race Is a Social Construct’. The Atlantic, 15 May 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Hodson, G. Race as a social construction. Psychology Today, 5 December 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Tuvel, R. In defence of transracialism. Hypatia 2017, 32, 263–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Springer, E. Open letter to Hypatia. Gender Identity Watch. 30 May 2017. Available online: https://archive.is/lUeR4 (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Sarich, V.; Miele, F. Race: The Reality of Human Difference; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Cochran, G.; Harpending, H. The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Woodley, M. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Med. Hypotheses 2010, 74, 195–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sesardic, N. Race: A social destruction of a biological concept. Biol. Philos. 2010, 25, 143–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardimon, M.O. The Idea of a Scientific Concept of Race. J. Philos. Res. 2012, 37, 249–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wade, N. A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History; Penguin: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Fuerst, J. The Nature of Race: The Genealogy of the Concept and the Biological Construct’s Contemporaneous Utility. Open Behav. Genet. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Winegard, B.; Winegard, B.; Boutwell, B. Human Biological and Psychological Diversity. Evol. Psychol. Sci. 2017, 3, 159–180. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reich, D. How Genetics Is Changing Our Understanding of ‘Race’. New York Times, 30 March 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Risch, N.; Burchard, E.; Ziv, E.; Tang, H. Categorization of humans in biomedical research: Genes, race and disease. Genome Biol. 2002, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- ASHG. ASHG Denounces Attempts to Link Genetics and Racial Supremacy. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2018, 103, 636. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Sesardic, N. Confusions about race: A new installment. Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci. Part C Stud. Hist. Philos. Biol. Biomed. Sci. 2013, 44, 287–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Khan, R. The Misrepresentation of Genetic Science in the Vox Piece on Race and IQ. Gene Expression, 18 May 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Novembre, J.; Johnson, T.; Bryc, K.; Kutalik, Z.; Boyko, A.R.; Auton, A.; Indap, A.; King, K.S.; Bergmann, S.; Nelson, M.R.; et al. Genes mirror geography within Europe. Nature 2008, 456, 98–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Lahn, B.T.; Ebenstein, L. Let’s celebrate human genetic diversity. Nature 2009, 461, 726–728. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xing, J.; Watkins, W.S.; Shlien, A.; Walker, E.; Huff, C.D.; Witherspoon, D.J.; Zhang, Y.; Simonson, T.S.; Weiss, R.B.; Schiffman, J.D.; et al. Toward a more uniform sampling of human genetic diversity: A survey of worldwide populations by high-density genotyping. Genomics 2010, 96, 199–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Leroi, A. A Family Tree in Every Gene. New York Times, 14 March 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Rosenberg, N.A.; Pritchard, J.K.; Weber, J.L.; Cann, H.M.; Kidd, K.K.; Zhivotovsky, L.A.; Feldman, M.W. Genetic structure of human populations. Science 2002, 298, 2381–2385. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tang, H.; Quertermous, T.; Rodriguez, B.; Kardia, S.L.R.; Zhu, X.; Brown, A.; Pankow, J.S.; Province, M.A.; Hunt, S.C.; Boerwinkle, E.; et al. Genetic Structure, Self-Identified Race/Ethnicity, and Confounding in Case-Control Association Studies. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2005, 76, 268–275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Allocco, D.J.; Song, Q.; Gibbons, G.H.; Ramoni, M.F.; Kohane, I.S. Geography and genography: Prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms. BMC Genom. 2007, 8, 68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Guo, G.; Fu, Y.; Lee, H.; Cai, T.; Harris, K.M.; Li, Y. Genetic Bio-Ancestry and Social Construction of Racial Classification in Social Surveys in the Contemporary United States. Demography 2014, 51, 141–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edwards, A.W.F. Human genetic diversity: Lewontin’s fallacy. BioEssays 2003, 25, 798–801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rosenberg, N.A.; Mahajan, S.; Ramachandran, S.; Zhao, C.; Pritchard, J.K.; Feldman, M.W. Clines, clusters, and the effect of study design on the inference of human population structure. PLoS Genet. 2005, 1, 660–671. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Epstein, D. The Sports Gene: Inside the Science of Extraordinary Athletic Performance; Penguin: London, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Burroughs, V.J.; Maxey, R.W.; Levy, R.A. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Response to Medicines: Individualized Pharmaceutical Treatment. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 2002, 94, 1–26. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Sauer, N.J. Forensic Anthropology and the Concept of Race: If Races Don’t Exist, Why Are Forensic Anthropologists So Good at Identifying Them? Soc. Sci. Med. 1992, 34, 107–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kennedy, K.A. But professor, why teach race identification if races don’t exist? J. Forensic Sci. 1995, 40, 797–800. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ousley, S.; Jantz, R.; Freid, D. Understanding race and human variation: Why forensic anthropologists are good at identifying race. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 2009, 139, 68–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Clarkson, C.; Jacobs, Z.; Marwick, B.; Fullagar, R.; Wallis, L.; Smith, M.; Roberts, R.G.; Hayes, E.; Lowe, K.; Carah, X.; et al. Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago. Nature 2017, 547, 306–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Macaulay, V.; Hill, C.; Achilli, A.; Rengo, C.; Clarke, D.; Meehan, W.; Blackburn, J.; Semino, O.; Scozzari, R.; Cruciani, F.; et al. Single, rapid coastal settlement of Asia revealed by analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes. Science 2005, 308, 1034–1036. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hawks, J.; Wang, E.T.; Cochran, G.M.; Harpending, H.C.; Moyzis, R.K. Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 20753–20758. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ilardo, M.; Nielsen, R. Human adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2018, 53, 77–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Henrich, J. The Secret of Our Success How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Reich, D. Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past; Pantheon Books: New York, NY, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Cochran, G. Live Not By Lies. West Hunter, 8 April 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Yang, J.; Benyamin, B.; McEvoy, B.P.; Gordon, S.; Henders, A.K.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Montgomery, G.W.; et al. Common SNPs Explain a Large Proportion of the Heritability for Human Height. Nat. Genet. 2010, 42, 565–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Becker, N.S.; Verdu, P.; Froment, A.; Le Bomin, S.; Pagezy, H.; Bahuchet, S.; Heyer, E. Indirect evidence for the genetic determination of short stature in African Pygmies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 2011, 145, 390–401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Stulp, G.; Barrett, L. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation. Biol. Rev. 2016, 91, 206–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Perry, G.H.; Foll, M.; Grenier, J.-C.; Patin, E.; Nedelec, Y.; Pacis, A.; Barakatt, M.; Gravel, S.; Zhou, X.; Nsobya, S.L.; et al. Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2014, 111, E3596–E3603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kong, A.; Frigge, M.L.; Thorleifsson, G.; Stefansson, H.; Young, A.I.; Zink, F.; Jonsdottir, G.A.; Okbay, A.; Sulem, P.; Masson, G.; et al. Selection against variants in the genome associated with educational attainment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2017, 114, E727–E732. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rindermann, H.; Becker, D.; Coyle, T.R. Survey of expert opinion on intelligence: The FLynn effect and the future of intelligence. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2017, 106, 242–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Hessen, D.J.; Oosterveld, P.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Span, M.M. Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 2004, 32, 509–537. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Te Nijenhuis, J.; van der Flier, H. Is the Flynn effect on g?: A meta-analysis. Intelligence 2014, 41, 802–807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wilby, P. Beyond the Flynn effect: New myths about race, family and IQ? Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/sep/27/james-flynn-race-iq-myths-does-your-family-make-you-smarter (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Roser, M. Human Height. Available online: https://ourworldindata.org/human-height (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Bennett, S. Life Expectancy Increased by 5 Years Since 2000, But Health Inequalities Persist. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/19-05-2016-life-expectancy-increased-by-5-years-since-2000-but-health-inequalities-persist. (accessed on 24 May 2019).
- Acciai, F.; Noah, A.J.; Firebaugh, G. Pinpointing the sources of the Asian mortality advantage in the USA. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 2015, 69, 1006–1011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fryar, C. Mean Body Weight, Height, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index among Adults: United States, 1999–2000 through 2015–2016. Available online: https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/61430 (accessed on 24 May 2019).
- Fontenot, K. Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017. In Current Population Reports; US Census Bureau: Suitland, MD, USA, 2018; pp. 60–263. [Google Scholar]
- Isler, K.; van Schaik, C.P. Metabolic costs of brain size evolution. Biol. Lett. 2006, 2, 557–560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Aiello, L.C.; Wheeler, P. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis the Brain and the Digestive Evolution. Curr. Anthropol. 1995, 36, 199–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lynn, R. Race differences in intelligence: A global perspective. Mank. Q. 1991, 31, 254–296. [Google Scholar]
- Sayol, F.; Maspons, J.; Lapiedra, O.; Iwaniuk, A.N.; Székely, T.; Sol, D. Environmental variation and the evolution of large brains in birds. Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 13971. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dawkins, R. The Extended Phenotype; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1982. [Google Scholar]
- Dawkins, R. The Blind Watchmaker; Norton & Company: New York, USA, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- Fuerst, J.; Kirkegaard, E.O.W. Admixture in the Americas: Regional and National Differences. Mank. Q. 2016, 56, 255–373. [Google Scholar]
- Becker, D.; Rindermann, H. The relationship between cross-national genetic distances and IQ-differences. Pers. Individ. Differ. 2016, 98, 300–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kirkegaard, E.; Menie, M.W.o.; Williams, R.; Fuerst, J.; Meisenberg, G. Biogeographic Ancestry, Cognitive Ability and Socioeconomic Outcomes. Psych 2019, 1, 1–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Piffer, D. Evidence for Recent Polygenic Selection on Educational Attainment and Intelligence Inferred from Gwas Hits: A Replication of Previous Findings Using Recent Data. Psych 2019, 1, 55–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Woodley, M.a.; Stratford, J.; Rindermann, H. Haplogroups as evolutionary markers of cognitive ability. Intelligence 2012, 40, 362–375. [Google Scholar]
- Dunkel, C.S.; Pallesen, J.; Kirkegaard, E.O. Polygenic Scores Mediate the Jewish Phenotypic Advantage in Educational Attainment and Cognitive Ability Compared With Catholics and Lutherans. Evol. Behav. Sci. 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haggbloom, S.J.; Warnick, R.; Warnick, J.E.; Jones, V.K.; Yarbrough, G.L.; Russell, T.M.; Borecky, C.M.; McGahhey, R.; Powell, J.L., III; Beavers, J.; et al. The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2002, 6, 139–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cressey, D. James Watson’s Race Row. Available online: http://archive.fo/S7wj0 (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Crick, F. Letter from Francis Crick to John T. Edsall, Fogarty International Center. The Francis Crick Papers, 5 March 1971. [Google Scholar]
- Snyderman, M.; Rothman, S. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence and Aptitude Testing. Am. Psychol. 1987, 42, 137–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rindermann, H.; Coyle, T.R.; Becker, D. 2013 Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence. In Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Intelligence Research, Melbourne, Australia, 12–14 December 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Jencks, C.; Philips, M. The Black-White Test Score Gap; Brookings Institution Press: Washington, DC, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Neisser, U.; Boodoo, G.; Bouchard, T.J., Jr.; Boykin, A.W.; Brody, N.; Ceci, S.J.; Halpern, D.F.; Loehlin, J.C.; Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; et al. Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. Am. Psychol. 1996, 51, 77–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dutton, E.; Lynn, R. Race and Sport: Evolution and Racial Differences in Sporting Ability; Ulster Institute for Social Research: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Pawłowski, B. Variable preferences for sexual dimorphism in height as a strategy for increasing the pool of potential partners in humans. Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 2003, 270, 709–712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- OkCupid. The Big Lies People Tell In Online Dating. Available online: http://archive.fo/rBE2U (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Nettle, D. Height and Reproductive success in a Cohort of British men. Hum. Nat. 2002, 13, 473–491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Singer, P. Should We Talk about Race and Intelligence? Available online: http://archive.fo/sd2aZ (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Cofnas, N. Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy. Hum. Nat. 2018, 29, 134–156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Martin, J.L. The birth of the true, the good, and the beautiful: Toward an investigation of the structures of social thought. Curr. Perspect. Soc. Theory 2016, 35, 3–56. [Google Scholar]
- Kohn, M. Did Charles Darwin believe in racial inequality? Available online: http://archive.fo/KYm5T (accessed on 22 May 2019).
- Dworkin, R. What is equality? Part 1: Equality of welfare. Philos. Public Aff. 1981, 10, 283–345. [Google Scholar]
- Dworkin, R. What is equality? Part 2: Equality of resources. Philos. Public Aff. 1981, 10, 185–246. [Google Scholar]
- Popper, K. The Logic of Scientific Discovery; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 1959. [Google Scholar]
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Carl, N. The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism. Psych 2019, 1, 262-278. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010018
Carl N. The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism. Psych. 2019; 1(1):262-278. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010018Chicago/Turabian Style
Carl, Noah. 2019. "The Fallacy of Equating the Hereditarian Hypothesis with Racism" Psych 1, no. 1: 262-278. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych1010018