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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 2 articles

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15 pages, 6371 KiB  
Review
Paradoxical Roles of Carbon Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy and Carcinogenesis
by Bohan Xu, Shunjie Wu, Yiyang Wang, Yuhe Ji, Shufeng Liang, Chunyan Wang and Xin Tian
J. Nanotheranostics 2024, 5(3), 84-98; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt5030006 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), members of the nanomaterial family, are increasingly being used in consumer products and extensively studied for various biomedical applications. Due to their benign elemental composition, large surface area, and chemical and biological activities, CNTs demonstrate great potential in cancer therapy, [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), members of the nanomaterial family, are increasingly being used in consumer products and extensively studied for various biomedical applications. Due to their benign elemental composition, large surface area, and chemical and biological activities, CNTs demonstrate great potential in cancer therapy, including drug delivery, imaging analysis, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy. However, there is still a major knowledge gap when it comes to transitioning from research to clinical applications. One of the important issues is that the biological toxicity of CNTs, especially in terms of carcinogenesis, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of toxicity and the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis is essential to enable the wide application of CNTs. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of CNTs as multifunctional therapeutics in cancer therapy. Furthermore, a detailed discussion is provided on the carcinogenesis and potential mechanisms of CNTs. Finally, the review ends with further challenges and prospects for CNTs with the expectation of facilitating their broader utilization. Full article
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9 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
Nano-Enabled Colorimetric Assay for the Detection of Paracoccidioides lutzii: Advancing Diagnostics with Nanotechnology
by Olavo O. Comparato Filho, Marcela A. Cândido, Aveline Ventura, Flavia V. Morais and Leandro Raniero
J. Nanotheranostics 2024, 5(3), 75-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt5030005 - 26 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Deforestation is a common occurrence driven by agricultural expansion, urbanization, and infrastructure development. These activities often lead to increased human interaction with ecosystems, potentially exposing individuals to Paracoccidioides spores (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) found in the soil, resulting in Paracoccidioidomycosis [...] Read more.
Deforestation is a common occurrence driven by agricultural expansion, urbanization, and infrastructure development. These activities often lead to increased human interaction with ecosystems, potentially exposing individuals to Paracoccidioides spores (P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii) found in the soil, resulting in Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This fungal infection is endemic to specific regions in Latin America, such as Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, and Argentina. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical assessment, imaging techniques, and laboratory examinations. P. lutzii lacks the glycoprotein Gp43, a key antigenic protein utilized in serological tests for PCM diagnosis. In this study, a colorimetric test employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and label-free methodology was employed for P. lutzii detection. The effectiveness of the label-free colorimetric test was assessed using a total of 100 samples. This detection was achieved through the amplification of the gp43 gene and the use of a specific probe (5′CAGGGGTGCG3′) in conjunction with AuNPs. The receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to assess the test, revealing that the method can accurately detect P. lutzii with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%. The findings indicate a substantial impact on remote endemic regions attributable to the implementation of cost-effective diagnostic methodologies. Full article
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