Smart City Strategies—Technology Push or Culture Pull? A Case Study Exploration of Gimpo and Namyangju, South Korea
2. Landscapes of Smart Practices
2.2. Characteristics of Smart Cities
2.3. Smart City Models and Dimensions
3. Data and Methods
4.1. Smartpotia Gimpo
4.1.1. The Motivation Behind Smart Cities
4.1.2. Building a Platform: Smartopia Center
4.1.3. Structures and Strategies
- A clear vision and goals which are known to the public
- Public–private partnerships
- Communication and cooperation with citizens
- Sharing of information
- Standardization and globalization
4.1.4. Policy Implications
4.2. Namyangju 4.0 Innovation
4.2.1. More on the Motivation Behind Smart Cities
4.2.2. Building a Process: NYJ 4.0 “Smart Cycle”
- Collect relevant data from NJY or other governmental and nongovernmental sources;
- Analyze the data to understand the nature of the policy problem or the issue to resolve;
- Administer an initial solution and collect data on its impact;
- Analyze the feedback data and revise and re-administer the solution.
4.2.3. Operations and Strategies
4.2.4. Policy Implications
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Berrone, P.; Ricart, J.E. IESE Cities in Motion Index 2019; Center for Globalization and Strategy and IESE Business School: Barcelona, Spain, 2019; Available online: https://media.iese.edu/research/pdfs/ST-0509-E.pdf (accessed on 3 April 2020).
- Hollands, R.G. Will the real smart city please stand up? City 2008, 12, 303–320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Caragliu, A.; Del Bo, C.; Nijkamp, P. Smart cities in Europe. J. Urban Technol. 2011, 18, 65–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Albino, V.; Berardi, U.; Dangelico, R.M. Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives. J. Urban Technol. 2015, 22, 3–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chourabi, H.; Nam, T.; Walker, S.; Gil-Garcia, J.R.; Mellouli, S.; Nahon, K.; Scholl, H.J. Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. In Proceedings of the 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, HI, USA, 4–7 January 2012; IEEE: Washington, DC, USA, 2012; pp. 2289–2297. Available online: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/document/6149291 (accessed on 15 December 2020).
- OECD. Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth: Building on the Outcomes of the 1st OECD Roundtable on Smart Cities and Inclusive Growth. 2020. Available online: https://www.oecd.org/cfe/cities/OECD_Policy_Paper_Smart_Cities_and_Inclusive_Growth.pdf (accessed on 8 November 2020).
- Ministry of the Interior. Korea, Leading the World E-Government. 2017. Available online: https://www.mois.go.kr/eng/bbs/type002/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_000000000022&nttId=57629 (accessed on 9 March 2020).
- Wellman, B.; Hasse, A.; Witte, J.; Hampton, K. Does internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital?: Social networks, participation, and community commitment. Am. Behav. Sci. 2001, 45, 436–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Browne, N.J.W. Regarding smart cities in China, the north and emerging economics-One size does not fit all. Smart Cities 2020, 3, 186–201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fredette, J.; Marom, R.; Steiner, K.; Alcatel-Lucent, L. The Promise and Peril of Hyperconnectivity for Organizations and Societies. The Global Information Technology Report 2012. World Economic Forum. 2012. Available online: http://reports.weforum.org/global-information-technology-2012/ (accessed on 1 August 2019).
- Ingwersen, P.; Serrano-López, A. Smart city research 1990–2016. Scientometrics 2018, 117, 1205–1236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dirks, S.; Keeling, M. A Vision of Smarter Cities: How Cities Can Lead the Way into a Prosperous and Sustainable Future; IBM Global Services: Somers, NY, USA, 2009; Available online: https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/2JYLM4ZA (accessed on 10 August 2020).
- Cretu, G.L. Smart cities design using event-driven paradigm and semantic web. Inform. Econ. 2012, 16, 57–67. [Google Scholar]
- Byun, J.; Kim, S.; Sa, J.; Shin, Y.; Kim, J. Smart city implementation models based on IoT technology. Adv. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2016, 129, 209–212. [Google Scholar]
- Harrison, C.; Eckman, B.; Hamilton, R.; Hartswick, P.; Kalagnanam, J.; Paraszczak, J.; Williams, P. Foundations for smart cities. IBM J. Res. Dev. 2010, 54, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vanolo, A. Smartmentality: The smart city as disciplinary strategy. Urban Stud. 2014, 51, 883–898. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bakici, T.; Almirall, E.; Wareham, J. A smart city initiative: The case of Barcelona. J. Knowl. Econ. 2013, 4, 135–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fernandez-Anez, V.; Fernández-Güell, J.; Giffinger, R. Smart city implementation and discourses: An integrated conceptual model. The case of Vienna. Cities 2018, 78, 4–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nam, T.; Pardo, T.A. Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Digital Government Research Conference, College Park, MD, USA, 12 June 2011; pp. 282–291. Available online: https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/2037556.2037602 (accessed on 5 February 2020).
- Letaifa, B. How to strategize smart cities: Revealing the SMART model. J. Bus. Res. 2015, 68, 1414–1419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Meijer, A.; Rodríguez Bolívar, M.P. Governing the smart city: A review of the literature on smart urban governance. Int. Rev. Adm. Sci. 2016, 82, 392–408. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cocchia, A. Smart and digital city: A systematic literature review. In Smart City: How to Create Public and Economic Value with High Technology in Urban Space; Dameri, R.P., Rosenthal-Sabroux, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2014; pp. 13–44. [Google Scholar]
- Silva, B.N.; Khan, M.; Jung, C.; Seo, J.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Han, K. Planning of smart cities: Performance improvement using big data analytics approach. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Electronics and Communication, Rome, Italy, 15–16 December 2016; pp. 51–55. Available online: https://www.seekdl.org/conferences/paper/details/8432.html (accessed on 17 October 2020).
- Kuk, G.; Janssen, M. The business models and information architectures of smart cities. J. Urban Technol. 2011, 18, 39–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giffinger, R.; Fertner, C.; Kramar, H.; Kalasek, R.; Pichler-Milanovic, N.; Evert, M. Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities; Centre of Regional Science, Vienna University of Technology: Vienna, Austria, 2007; Available online: http://curis.ku.dk/ws/files/37640170/smart_cities_final_report.pdf (accessed on 15 December 2020).
- Winters, J.V. Why are smart cities growing? Who moves and who stays. J. Reg. Sci. 2011, 51, 253–270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McFarlane, C.; Söderström, O. On alternative smart cities: From a technology-intensive to a knowledge-intensive smart urbanism. City 2017, 21, 312–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Scholl, H.J.; Barzilai-Nahon, K.; Ahn, J.-H.; Popova, O.H.; Re, B. E-commerce and e-government: How do they compare? What can they learn from each other? In Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2009), Waikoloa, HI, USA, 5–8 January 2009; Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4755557 (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Deakin, M. Smart cities: The state-of-the-art and governance challenge. Triple Helix 2014, 1, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lombardi, P.; Giordano, S.; Caragliu, A.; Del Bo, C.; Deakin, M.; Nijkamp, P.; Farouh, H. An advanced triple-helix network model for smart cities performance. In Green and Ecological Technologies for Urban Planning: Creating Smart Cities; Erocokun, O., Ed.; IGI Global: Hershey, PA, USA, 2012; pp. 59–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Etzkowitz, H.; Zhou, C. Triple Helix twins: Innovation and sustainability. Sci. Public Policy 2006, 33, 77–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, J.; Lee, H. Developing and validating a citizen-centric typology for smart city services. Gov. Inf. Q. 2014, 31 (Suppl. 1), S93–S105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Castelnovo, W.; Misuraca, G.; Savoldelli, A. Smart cities governance: The need for a holistic approach to assessing urban participatory policy making. Soc. Sci. Comput. Rev. 2016, 34, 724–739. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fernández-Güell, J.-M.; Collado-Lara, M.; Guzmán-Araña, S.; Fernández-Añez, V. Incorporating a systemic and foresight approach into smart city initiatives: The case of Spanish cities. J. Urban Technol. 2016, 23, 43–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ying, S.; Taeihagh, A. Smart city governance in developing countries: A systematic literature review. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1–29. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, J.H.; Hancock, M.G.; Hu, M. Towards and effective framework for building smart cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change 2014, 89, 80–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giffinger, R.; Gudrun, H. Smart cities ranking: An effective instrument for the positioning of cities? ACE Archit. City Environ. 2010, 4, 7–26. [Google Scholar]
- Monzon, A. Smart cities concept and challenges: Bases for the assessment of smart city project. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems, Lisbon, Portugal, 20–22 May 2015; pp. 1–11. Available online: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7297938 (accessed on 6 February 2020).
- Yin, R.K. Case Study Research: Design and Method, 4th ed; Sage Publication: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Stake, R.E. The Art of Case Study Research; Sage Publication: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Flyvberg, B. Five misunderstanding about case-study research. Qual. Inq. 2006, 12, 219–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Tratz-Ryan, B.; Velosa, A.; Jacobs, A. Hyper Cycle for Smart City Technologies and Solutions; Gartner, Inc.: Stamford, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- AlAwadhi, S.; Scholl, H.J. Aspirations and realizations: The smart city of Seattle. In Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Wailea, Maui, HI, USA, 7–10 January 2013; IEEE: Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2013; pp. 1695–1703. Available online: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/document/6480046/authors#authors (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Pezzutto, S.; Fazeli, R.; De Felice, M. Smart city projects implementation in Europe: Assessing of barriers and drivers. Int. J. Contemp. Energy 2016, 2, 56–65. [Google Scholar]
- Myeong, S. E-Government to Smart E-Governance: Korean Experience and Challenges. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance; Farazmand, A., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 1–8. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5_3814-1 (accessed on 20 January 2020).
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Myeong, S.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, M.J. Smart City Strategies—Technology Push or Culture Pull? A Case Study Exploration of Gimpo and Namyangju, South Korea. Smart Cities 2021, 4, 41-53. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010003
Myeong S, Kim Y, Ahn MJ. Smart City Strategies—Technology Push or Culture Pull? A Case Study Exploration of Gimpo and Namyangju, South Korea. Smart Cities. 2021; 4(1):41-53. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Myeong, Seunghwan, Younhee Kim, and Michael J. Ahn. 2021. "Smart City Strategies—Technology Push or Culture Pull? A Case Study Exploration of Gimpo and Namyangju, South Korea" Smart Cities 4, no. 1: 41-53. https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010003