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Contactless Liquid Height and Property Estimation Using Surface Acoustic Waves

by Hani Alhazmi 1,2 and Rasim Guldiken 2,*
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Acoustics 2020, 2(2), 366-381; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics2020021
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 6 June 2020
The propagation of surface acoustic waves over a solid plate is highly influenced by the presence of liquid media on the surface. At the solid–liquid interface, a leaky Rayleigh wave radiates energy into the liquid, causing a signification attenuation of the surface acoustic wave amplitude. In this study, we take advantage of this spurious wave mode to predict the characteristics of the media, including the volume or height. In this study, the surface acoustic waves were generated on a thick 1018 steel surface via a 5 MHz transducer coupled through an angle beam wedge. A 3D-printed container was inserted on the propagation path. The pulse-echo time-domain responses of the signal were recorded at five different volumes (0, 400, 600, 1000, and 1800 µL). With the aid of parametric CAD analysis, both the position and distance of the entire traveling wave in the liquid layer were modeled and verified with experimental studies. The results indicated that the average drop in the reflected wave amplitude due to liquid loading is −62.5% compared to the empty container, with a percentage of error within 10% for all cases. The localized-time frequency components of the reflected wave were obtained via a Short-Time Fourier Transform technique. Up to 10% reduction (500 KHz) in the central frequency was observed due to the liquid volume increasing. The method discussed herein could be useful for many applications, where some of the liquid’s parameters or the ultrasonic wave behavior in the liquid need to be assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface acoustic wave; attenuation; leaky Rayleigh wave; Short-Time Fourier Transform Analysis surface acoustic wave; attenuation; leaky Rayleigh wave; Short-Time Fourier Transform Analysis
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Alhazmi, H.; Guldiken, R. Contactless Liquid Height and Property Estimation Using Surface Acoustic Waves. Acoustics 2020, 2, 366-381.

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