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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 3 articles

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Open AccessReview
Role of Gastric Emptying in Symptoms of Gastroparesis
Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1(4), 391-402; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1040032 - 19 Nov 2019
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Abstract
The symptoms of gastroparesis, such as nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiety and abdominal pain, frequently impair the quality of life of the affected individuals. The diagnosis of gastroparesis is made after structural etiologies are ruled out and an assessment of gastric function [...] Read more.
The symptoms of gastroparesis, such as nausea, vomiting, postprandial fullness, early satiety and abdominal pain, frequently impair the quality of life of the affected individuals. The diagnosis of gastroparesis is made after structural etiologies are ruled out and an assessment of gastric function shows delayed gastric emptying. The role of the delay in gastric emptying in the pathogenesis of symptoms of gastroparesis has been debated, with some studies suggesting an association between delayed gastric emptying and the upper gastrointestinal symptoms, while others do not. The recent literature supports the importance of using reliable methods to assess gastric emptying, as delay in gastric emptying measured on a reliable test (4-h scintigraphy or breath test) is associated with the severity of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition to measuring total gastric emptying, evaluation of regional gastric retention in the proximal and distal stomach and whole gut transit to assess small intestinal and colonic transit may provide additional useful information in patients with more generalized symptoms of gastrointestinal dysmotility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastroparesis)
Open AccessArticle
Referral for Colonoscopy in Patients with Streptococcus bovis Bacteremia and the Association with Colorectal Cancer and Adenomatous Polyps: A Quality Assurance Study
Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1(4), 385-390; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1040031 - 29 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The association between Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) bacteremia and colorectal cancer is well established. We aimed to review patients with S. bovis bacteremia at our local hospital system and determine the percentage of patients referred for colonoscopy. Methods: We searched the regional database [...] Read more.
The association between Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) bacteremia and colorectal cancer is well established. We aimed to review patients with S. bovis bacteremia at our local hospital system and determine the percentage of patients referred for colonoscopy. Methods: We searched the regional database to identify S. bovis-positive blood cultures from 2002 to 2016 and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of those patients. Results: A total of 86 patients with S. bovis bacteremia were identified. From the 86 patients, 14 were excluded. The mean age of the 72 remaining patients was 74.5 (SD 13), 42/72 (58%) were male, 12/72 (17%) had infective endocarditis, and 19 (26%) died during admission. Of the 53 patients who survived, 37 (70%) were referred for colonoscopy or CT colonography, of which 30 had a colonoscopy. Thus, 3/30 (10%) cases showed adenocarcinoma and 11/30 (37%) cases showed adenomatous polyps. Age, gender, or the presence of infective endocarditis were not associated with adenocarcinoma or adenomatous polyps. Discussion: In our local centers, a significant proportion of patients with S. bovis were found to have colon cancer or significant polyps, and thus the importance of referral to colonoscopy remains paramount. Full article
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Cytomorphological Characterization of Individual Metastatic Tumor Cells from Gastrointestinal Cancer Patient Lymph Nodes with Imaging Flow Cytometry
Gastrointest. Disord. 2019, 1(4), 372-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord1040030 - 26 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The presence or absence of tumor cells within patient lymph nodes is an important prognostic indicator in a number of cancer types and an essential element of the staging process. However, patients with the same pathological stage will not necessarily have the same [...] Read more.
The presence or absence of tumor cells within patient lymph nodes is an important prognostic indicator in a number of cancer types and an essential element of the staging process. However, patients with the same pathological stage will not necessarily have the same outcome. Therefore, additional factors may aid in identifying patients at a greater risk of developing metastasis. In this proof of principle study, initially, spiked tumor cells in rat lymph nodes were used to mimic a node with a small cancer deposit. Next, human lymph nodes were obtained from cancer patients for morphological characterization. Nodes were dissociated with a manual tissue homogenizer and stained with fluorescent antibodies against CD45 and Pan-Cytokeratin and then imaging flow cytometry (AMNIS ImageStreamX Mark II) was performed. We show here that imaging flow cytometry can be used for the detection and characterization of small numbers of cancer cells in lymph nodes and we also demonstrate the phenotypical and morphological characterization of cancer cells in gastrointestinal cancer patient lymph nodes. When used in addition to conventional histological techniques, this high throughput detection of tumor cells in lymph nodes may offer additional information assisting in the staging process with therapeutic and prognostic applications. Full article
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