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The Importance of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms for Vaccination Success and Susceptibility to Viral Infections

1
Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Doctor Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clocks & Sleep 2022, 4(1), 66-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep4010008
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2022 / Accepted: 12 February 2022 / Published: 16 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health II)
Sleep and circadian rhythms are closely involved in the immune system and its regulation. Here, we describe this relationship and provide recommendations regarding the influence of sleep and circadian rhythms on vaccination success. We review studies investigating how viral susceptibility is influenced by changes in immunological parameters as a consequence of sleep deprivation. Short sleep duration and poor sleep efficiency both appear to be strong factors leading to greater vulnerability. In addition, both sleep duration and the time of day of the vaccination seem to be associated with the magnitude of the antibody response after vaccination. Based on these findings, a recommendation would consist of a sleep duration of 7 h or more every night to both reduce the risk of infection and to optimize the efficacy of vaccination with respect to circadian timing. Improving sleep quality and its circadian timing can potentially play a role in preventing infection and in vaccination benefits. In conclusion, sufficient (or longer) sleep duration is important in both reducing susceptibility to infection and increasing antibody response after vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep; circadian rhythms; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; cold; immune function; vaccination sleep; circadian rhythms; COVID-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; cold; immune function; vaccination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schmitz, N.C.M.; van der Werf, Y.D.; Lammers-van der Holst, H.M. The Importance of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms for Vaccination Success and Susceptibility to Viral Infections. Clocks & Sleep 2022, 4, 66-79. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep4010008

AMA Style

Schmitz NCM, van der Werf YD, Lammers-van der Holst HM. The Importance of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms for Vaccination Success and Susceptibility to Viral Infections. Clocks & Sleep. 2022; 4(1):66-79. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep4010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schmitz, Nina C. M., Ysbrand D. van der Werf, and Heidi M. Lammers-van der Holst. 2022. "The Importance of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms for Vaccination Success and Susceptibility to Viral Infections" Clocks & Sleep 4, no. 1: 66-79. https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep4010008

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