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Article

Estimated Construction Order of the Major Shrines of Sambor Prei Kuk Based on an Analysis of Bricks

by 1,†, 2,† and 2,*
1
World Heritage Studies, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan
2
Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Heritage 2019, 2(3), 1941-1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030118
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
Sambor Prei Kuk is a predominantly brick monument complex identified as Ishanapura, the capital of the Chenla Dynasty, which reached the height of prosperity in the first half of the 7th century. In the east area of this ancient city, the religious area was formed by three temple complexes which are composed of brick shrines and a multiple number of smaller temples with single or a few shrines scattered in the area. One of the challenging issues is to identify the dates and order in which these structures are constructed. Previous studies based on epigraphy and decorative style have estimated a simple dating of the three temple complexes. In this research, 59 major brick structures which are relatively well preserved in this area were analyzed in terms of the size and chemical composition of their component bricks. This analysis revealed that these brick structures can be classified into several groups corresponding to construction stages. The results revealed that the individual shrines in each temple complexes were built in a more complex process than previously stated, and the construction stages of the individual shrines in the vicinity were also identified as an equally complex process. View Full-Text
Keywords: construction order; architectural chronology; brick; X-ray fluorescence analyzer; Khmer; Sambor Prei Kuk; pre-Angkor; Southeast Asia construction order; architectural chronology; brick; X-ray fluorescence analyzer; Khmer; Sambor Prei Kuk; pre-Angkor; Southeast Asia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimoda, I.; Uchida, E.; Tsuda, K. Estimated Construction Order of the Major Shrines of Sambor Prei Kuk Based on an Analysis of Bricks. Heritage 2019, 2, 1941-1959. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030118

AMA Style

Shimoda I, Uchida E, Tsuda K. Estimated Construction Order of the Major Shrines of Sambor Prei Kuk Based on an Analysis of Bricks. Heritage. 2019; 2(3):1941-1959. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimoda, Ichita, Etsuo Uchida, and Kojiro Tsuda. 2019. "Estimated Construction Order of the Major Shrines of Sambor Prei Kuk Based on an Analysis of Bricks" Heritage 2, no. 3: 1941-1959. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2030118

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