Chemical Compositional Signatures of Constituent Minerals of Iron Slags and Ores from the Khmer Monuments
Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Heritage 2019, 2(2), 1724-1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage2020105
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
Iron slags and ores were collected from 22 sites (A to V) in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay, the area surrounding Phnom Daek, and the Angkor monuments. Iron ores were taken from two outcrops in Phnom Daek. The chemical compositions of fayalite and wüstite in the iron slags and magnetite in the iron ores were determined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis using averaged chemical compositional data for fayalite allowed for the investigated slag dumps to be classified into two main groups: Groups 1 and 2. The slag dumps in the area surrounding Phnom Daek and those in the Angkor monuments were classified as Group 1, and those in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay were classified as Group 2, except for sites C and U, which were classified as Group 1. Radiocarbon dating was carried out on 10 charcoal fragments from slag dumps outside the Angkor area. The dating results indicate that iron making in Preah Khan of Kompong Svay was conducted in and after the 13th century except for sites C and U, where iron ores may have been supplied from Phnom Daek before the 13th century.