Evaluation of Interference Analysis from 5G NR Networks to Aeronautical and Maritime Mobile Systems in the Frequency Band 4800–4990 MHz
2. State of the Art
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Study Assumptions and Scenario
3.2. Characteristics of 5G NR Networks
3.3. Characteristics of Aeuronautical Mobile Service
3.4. Characteristics Maritime Mobile Service
3.5. Simulation Methodology
- Recommendation ITU-R P.528 “A propagation prediction method for aeronautical mobile and radionavigation services using the VHF, UHF and SHF bands” with 20% percentage of time was used to estimate interference with the AMS receivers .
- Recommendation ITU-R P.452 “Prediction procedure for the evaluation of interference between stations on the surface of the Earth at frequencies above about 0.1 GHz” with 20% percentage of time, 452 was used to estimate interference level to the MMS receivers .
- Recommendation ITU-R P.2108 “Prediction of clutter loss” with 20% of location, the clutter was applied to all 5G interfering BS ;
- Recommendation ITU-R P.2109 “Building entry loss” with 50% traditional and 50% thermally efficient buildings, this model was applied for the indoor 5G interfering UEs .
4.1. Results for Aeronautical Mobile Serivce
4.1.1. Results for AMS with Omnidirectional Antenna
4.1.2. Results for AMS with Directional Antenna
4.2. Results for Maritime Mobile Serivce
4.2.1. Results for MMS with Omnidirectional Antenna
4.2.2. Results for MMS with Directional Antenna
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Low Bands||Mid Bands||High Bands|
|Cell radius||Typical cell radius 0.4 km urban|
|Base station antenna height||20 m urban|
|Typical channel bandwidth||40 or 80 or 100 MHz|
|Network loading factor (base station load probability X%)||20%,|
|BS TDD activity factor||75%|
|Indoor user terminal usage||70%|
|Indoor user terminal penetration loss||Rec. ITU-R P.2109|
|User equipment density for terminals that are transmitting simultaneously||3 UEs per sector|
|UE height||1.5 m|
|Average user terminal output power||Use transmit power control|
|Typical antenna gain for user terminals||−4 dBi|
|Body loss||4 dB|
|UE TDD activity factor||25%|
|Power control model||Refer to Recommendation ITU-R M.2101 Annex 1, Section 4.1|
|Maximum user terminal output power, PCMAX||23 dBm|
|Power (dBm) target value per RB, P0_PUSCH||−92.2|
|Antenna pattern||Recommendation ITU-R P.2101|
|Element gain (dBi)||6.4|
|Horizontal/vertical 3 dB beam width of single element||90° for H|
65° for V
|Horizontal/vertical front-to-back ratio (dB)||30 for both H/V|
|Antenna polarization||Linear ± 45°|
|Antenna array configuration (Row × Column)||4 × 8 elements|
|Horizontal/Vertical radiating element/sub-array spacing, dh /dv||0.5 of wavelength for H, 2.1 of wavelength for V|
|Number of element rows in sub-array, Msub||3|
|Vertical radiating element spacing in sub-array, dv,sub||0.7 of wavelength of V|
|Pre-set sub-array down-tilt, θsubtilt (degrees)||3|
|Array Ohmic loss (dB)||2|
|Conducted power (before Ohmic loss) per antenna element/sub-array (dBm)||28|
|Base station horizontal coverage range (degrees)||±60|
|Base station vertical coverage range (degrees)||90–100|
|Mechanical down-tilt (degrees)||10|
|Parameter||System 1 |
|System 2 |
|System 2 |
|Bandwidth (3 dB)||1||5/0.008||5/0.008|
|Thermal noise level||−110.5||−103/−131||−103/−131|
|Antenna pattern||N/A||Uniform distribution |
Rec. ITU-R M.1851
|Uniform distribution |
Rec. ITU-R M.1851
|Parameter||System 1 |
|System 2 |
|Bandwidth (3 dB)||5.6/11.3/22.6||40/50/60/80/100 |
|Thermal noise level||−100.5 to −94.5||−93 … −89|
|Antenna type||Omnidirectional||Directional |
|Antenna pattern||N/A||Rec ITU-R F.1336|
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Pastukh, A.; Sorokin, V. Evaluation of Interference Analysis from 5G NR Networks to Aeronautical and Maritime Mobile Systems in the Frequency Band 4800–4990 MHz. J 2023, 6, 17-31. https://doi.org/10.3390/j6010002
Pastukh A, Sorokin V. Evaluation of Interference Analysis from 5G NR Networks to Aeronautical and Maritime Mobile Systems in the Frequency Band 4800–4990 MHz. J. 2023; 6(1):17-31. https://doi.org/10.3390/j6010002Chicago/Turabian Style
Pastukh, Alexander, and Vladislav Sorokin. 2023. "Evaluation of Interference Analysis from 5G NR Networks to Aeronautical and Maritime Mobile Systems in the Frequency Band 4800–4990 MHz" J 6, no. 1: 17-31. https://doi.org/10.3390/j6010002